International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women: Avant Propos

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The United Nations General Assembly through resolution 54/134 of December 17, 1999, designated November 25 as International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women. Prior to that, women’s activists had marked the date as a day against violence since 1981. This date came from the brutal assassination in 1960, of the three Mirabal sisters (political activists in the Dominican Republic, which story was later filmed in In the Time of Butterflies), on orders of Dominican rule Rafael Trujillo (1930-1961).

Violence against women is a human rights violations. Recent facts and figures reveal that:

  • 35% of women and girls globally experience some form of physical and/or sexual violence in their lifetime with up to 7 in 10 women facing this abuse in some countries
  • An estimated 133 million girls and women have experienced some form of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in the 29 countries in Africa and the Middle East where the harmful practice is most common
  • Worldwide, more than 700 million women alive today were married as children, 250 million of whom were married before the age of 15. Girls who marry before the age of 18 are less likely to complete their education and more likely to experience domestic violence and complications in childbirth (the following video might help you to get the logic: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1e8xgF0JtVg or this simple photo https://www.facebook.com/ONE/photos/a.179130009471.121736.11055104471/10152474650649472/?type=3)
  • The costs and consequences of violence against women last for generations

Violence against women is a consequence of discrimination against women, in law and also in practice, and of persisting inequalities between men and women (should you forget the simple formula, I re-write it here, “Gender equality gives women and men the same entitlements to all aspects of human development, including economic, social, cultural, civil and political rights; the same level of respect; the same opportunities to make choices; and the same level of power to shape the outcomes of these choices.”)

Violence against women impacts on, and impedes, progress in many areas, including poverty eradication, combating HIV/AIDS, and peace and security.

Violence against women and girls is not inevitable. Prevention is possible and essential.

Violence against women continues to be a global pandemic (check this infographic: http://www.unwomen.org/en/digital-library/multimedia/2015/11/infographic-violence-against-women)

This writing is my personal commitment of joining 16 days of activism.

16daysofactivism

From November 25 to December 10 of Human Rights Day, the 16 Days of Activism against Gender-Based Violence Campaign is a time to galvanize action to end violence against women and girls around the world. The international campaign originated from the first Women’s Global Leadership Institute in 1991. This year marks the 20-year anniversary of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (BPFA) -the most progressive road map to gender equality. This first writing is merely a compilation of information from various resources to kick off. The next writings will be written either in English or Bahasa Indonesia (my national language). You are free to check the followings for further information about the campaign: http://www.un.org/en/events/endviolenceday/pdf/Brochure%20UNiTE%20A%20Promise%20is%20a%20Promise.pdf and http://www.un.org/en/events/endviolenceday/pdf/UNiTE_TheSituation_EN.pdf)

Resource: http://www.un.org/en/events/endviolenceday/ and http://www.unwomen.org/en/what-we-do/ending-violence-against-women/take-action/16-days-of-activism

#ViolenceagainstWomen #16days

Tribute to My Mom by Sayid Abdullaev

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My dear global family,

It has been 20 days since the day my mom has left this planet to go to Heaven.

Losing a parent is such an outlandish feeling, like somebody took an important piece of your soul and left you figuring it out without any hints on how to move on. It is when breathing becomes so unfamiliar that you have no idea if you still belong. It is an impossible pain, however it makes you stronger, because it is the only choice you have…

I know my mom would want me to keep on smiling and move forward with the sense of purpose towards the greatness she has breathed into me.

The week before my mom has passed away, we had a profound conversation on the importance of finding the purpose of being here on Earth and discovering the gifts that each of us has to make this world a better place. I asked my mom, what she thinks her gift was to this world; she looked at me with her kind eyes and said “It is you!” she said, she believes in me, and she knows no matter what kind of challenges might be ahead, she is firm in the belief that I will be great.

Therefore, I am choosing to be patient, I choosing to be grateful for the time I was able to spent with my mom, I am choosing to celebrate each day as a promise to carry the legacy of my mom in all I do, I am choosing to continue making a difference for mothers, fathers, and children the world over, I am choosing to live each day with an open heart and an open mind.

The day my mom has passed away, on the International Day of Peace, I was getting ready for my meeting with the Russian President Putin, and my mom was so proud and excited. It was already hard for her to move and talk, but as I came to her room in the morning, she was in a lot of pain, but she found strength to extend her hands to me … as I kissed them, she said “Do not cry: it is all going to be great,” she held my hands, I looked at her eyes and they were full of courage, pride, kindness, perseverance, and warmth. If only I knew it would be the last time I see her, I would hold her hands forever …

My mom has given me the birth on Earth Day and left this planet on the International Day of Peace, and that’s how she will be remembered: peaceful and kind, a beautiful spiritual being who has blessed us with her human experience, small person with the huge heart, and of course as the mother who has experienced incomprehensible challenges to raise us, her children, and taught us to be always responsible for the space we are holding on Earth …

Mom, your heart beats in my heart! I love you and I really really miss you!!!!

Disclaimer: this beautiful piece was a speech delivered by a friend, Sayid Abdullaev, at the Farewell Party of UNESCO Chair International Regional Training Programme: A Global Intergenerational Forum in Bangkok, Thailand, November 10, 2012. You can find more about him here Sayid Abdullaev

Hanum Indria dan Knit Uroe

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Kakak ngak bisa bantu yang lain, dik. Cuma bisa bantu supaya ilmu Hanum bertambah [dengan membaca referensi berbeda]. Jadi orang yang Hanum ajarin juga ilmunya makin banyak. (26 Mei 2015)

Percakapan via WA tersebut mengawali keinginan saya untuk melakukan “random act of kindness” yang sesungguhnya tidak murni random. Saya mengenal sosok Hanum Indria dengan sangat baik: adik kelas di SMP dan SMU. Juga, bergiat di organisasi intra sekolah yang sama: PALASTIG (Pencinta Alam SMUN 3 Banda Aceh). Namun keinginan untuk membantunya yang menurut saya cukup random karena saya bahkan tidak memahami apa yang menjadi passion-nya.

Dalam beberapa kesempatan berbeda dimana kami menghabiskan waktu bersama –dan ini cukup jarang karena saya sering mukim di luar kota, saya hampir selalu melihatnya dengan segelondong benang dan dua pengait. Hanum terlihat sangat terampil memainkan dua pengait tersebut sembari tetap menyimak dan terlibat dalam diskusi kami dengan sepenuh hati. Hal yang mungkin lebih mengagetkan adalah terkait mimpi yang ingin diwujudkan setelah mendapatkan gelar Sarjana Teknik (ST) dari Jurusan Teknik Sipil Universitas Syiah Kuala. Saat semua lulusan PTN ataupun PTS di Aceh berburu mengikuti ujian CPNS, Hanum bahkan bersikap tidak peduli.

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Bersama dengan dua orang teman, Marwan dan Miswar, ia membangun sebuah shelter yang direncanakan sebagai tempat mengajar keterampilan rajut kepada mereka yang ingin mempelajarinya. Tempatnya tidak jauh, di pekarangan rumahnya di Tungkop, Darussalam, Kecamatan Aceh Besar. Saya pernah mampir dan dengan keterampilan yang terbatas, membantu menghaluskan permukaan bambu yang akan digunakan sebagai pagar. Saya benar-benar terpukau dengan segala ketekunan Hanum dan dua temannya dalam pekerjaan membangun shelter yang dilakukan swadaya.

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Sembari menunggu bangunan tersebut rampung, Hanum terus menebarkan ilmunya kepada mereka yang tertarik untuk belajar bersama. Percakapan WA pada awal Juni lalu membuktikan keyakinan saya bahwa perempuan ini, seorang Hanum Indria, sungguh memahami apa yang ingin dilakukannya dalam hidup.

Di antara anak sekolah di Kajhu yang sudah bisa merajut, ada 2 orang yang dari Lamno. Salah satunya sudah bisa baca pola. Dengan pendampingan selama 6 bulan, setiap orangnya sudah bisa mengajar masing-masing 2 orang lagi. Target Hanum, minimal 5 orang saja sudah bisa membentuk kelompok mandiri, kemudian bisa mencari ciri khas kelompok dan meluncurkan merek sendiri. Hasilnya bisa dipasarkan di Banda Aceh.

Perempuan ini sungguh luar biasa! Kemuliaan niatnya dan kesungguhannya untuk menekuni apa yang menjadi passion-nya telah menggugah saya. Saya menuliskan kisah ini karena saya ingin menggerakkan alam semesta untuk membantunya, mengingat keterbatasan kedua tangan saya yang mungil ini.

Sejauh ini, saya sudah mengirimkan beberapa buku sebagai referensi untuk Hanum dan juga kelompoknya (ada 11 judul). Saya juga sedang berusaha mendapatkan informasi mengenai lembaga di Provinsi Aceh sana yang bertanggung jawab untuk pendaftaran merek. Hanum adalah perempuan yang cepat belajar, sehingga seandainya ada teman-teman yang ingin berbagi keahlian dan keterampilan dengan Hanum via tutorial online, saya juga mungkin bisa memfasilitasi ini. Or any other thoughts yang sekiranya bisa membuat Hanum memaksimalkan spill over effect dari keahliannya kepada yang lain, silahkan berbagi di kolom komentar.

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Saya percaya pada sebuah sentuhan kecil yang diniatkan dengan penuh kemuliaan dan kerendahan hati akan menjadi sesuatu yang bermakna besar bagi kemanusiaan dan mungkin peradaban

(Semua foto yang digunakan di tulisan ini sudah mendapatkan izin dari yang bersangkutan. Ingin mengetahui lebih jauh mengenai Hanum, silahkan cek Facebooknya di Hanum Indria)

Konflik Aceh: Dehumanisasi dan Upaya Damai

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Akhir 1999, saya bergabung dengan sebuah LSM di Banda Aceh -La Kasspia, the Institute for Peace and Human Security Studies sebagai kepala departemen penelitian dan pengembangan. Saat itu, status Daerah Operasi Militer (DOM) yang telah disandang Aceh sejak 1989 telah lebih setahun dicabut, tepatnya melalui pernyataan resmi Menteri Pertahanan dan Keamanan/Panglima ABRI Jenderal TNI Wiranto pada 7 Agustus 1998. Namun, dehumanisasi yang menjelma dalam bentuk extrajudicial killing or summary execution, enforced or involuntary disappearances, torture, arbitrary detention dan rape terus terjadi melalui periodisasi operasi militer pasca DOM, yaitu:

  1. Operasi Wibawa (Agustus – Januari 1999)
  2. Operasi Sadar Rencong I (Mei 1999 – Januari 2000)
  3. Operasi Sadar Rencong II (Februari – Mei 2000)
  4. Operasi Cinta Meunasah (Juni 2000 – 18 Februari 2001)
  5. Masa JoU (2 Juni 2000 – 15 Januari 2001)
  6. Masa Moratorium (15 Januari – 15 Februari 2001)
  7. Masa Instruksi Presiden No. 4 Tahun 2001 dan Instruksi Presiden No. 7 Tahun 2001 tentang Langkah-Langkah Komprehensif dalam Rangka Penyelesaian Masalah Aceh, dilanjutkan dengan Instruksi Presiden No. 1 Tahun 2002 (11 April – 30 November 2002)
  8. Masa CoHA (Desember 2002 – Mei 2003)
  9. Darurat Militer (19 Mei 2003 – 19 Mei 2004)
  10. Darurat Sipil (Mei 2004 – Mei 2005)

La Kasspia ikut berkontribusi menyediakan sumber informasi bagi upaya-upaya resolusi konflik, salah satunya melalui publikasi dua laporan berikut: Laporan Kajian Triwulan Kondisi Sosial Politik Aceh dan Laporan Kajian terhadap JoU.

Saya ingin berbagi sumber informasi tersebut di sini, utamanya bagi pemerhati masalah konflik, agar pengetahuan ini menjadi kepingan puzzle yang melengkapi sejarah konflik di Aceh.

Catatan:

Babak baru bagi penyelesaian konflik Aceh secara damai dimulai dengan diselenggarakannya rangkaian perundingan damai antara Pemerintah Republik Indonesia dan Gerakan Aceh Merdeka yang dimediasi oleh Henry Dunant Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue. Rangkaian perundingan damai ini dimulai dengan periode Joint Understanding on Humanitarian Pause yang ditandatangani pada 12 Mei 2000 di Davos, Swiss; dilanjutkan dengan Provisional Understanding (Moratorium) yang ditandatangani di Swiss bertepatan dengan pertemuan Joint Forum pada 6-9 Januari 2001; diakhiri dengan Cessation of Hostilities Agreement yang ditandatangani pada 9 Desember 2002. Periode ini menghasilkan dinamika konflik yang berbeda; kekerasan meningkat meskipun di atas meja perundingan telah disepakati mekanisme gencatan senjata hingga peredaan ketegangan antara kedua belah pihak. CoHA menemui kegagalan pada 19 Mei 2003 seiring dengan deklarasi all out war oleh Pemerintah RI terhadap GAM yang diperkirakan berjumlah 5.000 orang dengan kekuatan 2.000 pucuk senjata. Darurat Militer menjadi titik kulminasi bagi usaha damai yang telah dirintis sejak 2000 dalam rangka menyelesaikan konflik Aceh dengan cara-cara non-kekerasan.

Referensi Lain:

Internal Review of Aceh Initiative oleh Henry Dunant Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue bisa diakses di http://www.hdcentre.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Our_work/Peacemaking/Aceh_Indonesia/Supporting_documents/Aceh-internal-review-HD-Centre.pdf

Naskah Provisional Understanding (Moratorium) juga bisa diakses di http://www.hdcentre.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Our_work/Peacemaking/Aceh_Indonesia/Supporting_documents/Provisional-understanding-9-January-2001.pdf

Naskah CoHA dan Memorandum of Understanding yang difasilitasi oleh Crisis Management Initiative bisa diakses di http://www.hdcentre.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Our_work/Peacemaking/Aceh_Indonesia/Supporting_documents/Provisional-understanding-9-January-2001.pdf

Bincang-Bincang dengan Kevin Evans tentang Korupsi dan Penegakan Integritas

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Mirisa Hasfaria (MH): Sejak reformasi bergulir, Indonesia sudah membentuk atau mereformasi institusi-institusi yang akan mengawal tata pemerintahan yang baik dan akuntabel, seperti membentuk KPK, atau mereformasi Badan Pengawasan Keuangan dan Pembangunan (BPKP) dan Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan (BPK). Namun mengapa tidak ada transformasi yang signifikan terkait dengan komitmen pemberantasan korupsi dan penegakan integritas di Indonesia?

Kevin Evans (KE): Isu pertama adalah apakah tidak ada kemajuan di Indonesia di bidang ini? Saya rasa jawaban adalah banyak. Bahwasanya koran dan TV penuh isu-isu dan skandal korupsi disebabkan “bad news sells” dan manusia dimana-mana nampak suka melihat orang hebat jatuh, apalagi jika kejatuhan dapat dikaitkan dengan kezoliman atau ketidak-adilan seperti korupsi.

Koran penuh dengan berita ini, yang sebetulnya mengisi ranah publik dan perspektif masyarakat umum karena empat hal:

  1. Bad news sells
  2. Masyarakat tidak lagi mentolerir perilaku korupsi (contoh paling nyata upaya untuk menjatuhkan KPK gagal karena rakyat menuntut balik dan tidak ada politikus yang berani melawan tsunami pendapat publik serta partai yang dianggap bau korupsi mati – lihat Demokrat dan PKS saat ini atau PDIP dulu, atau Golkar sebelum itu;
  3. Rakyat semakin peka dan mengerti masalah dan dampak korupsi sehingga lebih pintar “mencium”nya dari pada dulu
  4. Pers di Indonesia sudah bebas untuk mengkritik atau mengudarakan “bad news” yang memojokkan pihak yang berkuasa. Hal ini sangat berbeda dari zaman dulu.

Akibat dari hal tersebut di atas adalah kebanjiran berita mengenai hal yang layak dibaca publik. Dengan demikian kesan dan persepsi yang kemudian muncul adalah keadaan saat ini lebih buruk dari dulu ,padahal belum tentu. Justru kebebasan untuk mempertanggungjawabkan penguasa merupakan satu pintu yang membongkar dan mengerdilkan potensi korupsi berskala besar.

Mari kita elaborasi poin 3. Kalau anak SBY mau masuk ke kancah politik istilah di Indonesia adalah nepotisme bahkan nepotisme akbar. Di Singapura anak mantan perdana menteri (Lee Hsien Loong, putra tertua Lee Kuan Yew) dijadikan perdana menteri disambut sebagai bukti kehebatan keluarga tersebut!!! Di Indonesia anak SBY belum apa-apa sudah disikapi demikian. Anak Lee Kuan Yew bahkan jadi dan tidak ada komentar negatif. Mengapa demikian??

Jadi, saya tidak setuju kalau tidak ada kemajuan untuk mengatasi masalah korupsi di Indonesia. Grafis tentang persepsi korupsi menunjukkan bahwa pada tahun 1999, Indonesia menempati ranking ketiga terburuk di dunia dengan nilai 1,9 dari 10. [1] Pada tahun 2011 ranking Indonesia sudah naik sampai ke 3,0 dan setara dengan Meksiko dan Argentina dan letaknya di posisi menengah di dunia, bukan lagi di bawah.

Nah kalau rakyat masih jauh dari puas merupakan petanda baik bahwa mereka tetap menuntut perbaikan lagi. Dan memang masih banyak yang harus diperbaiki. Namun demikian sudah saatnya rakyat di sini mulai menilai diri secara lebih bermartabat daripada dulu. Indonesia tidak lagi seburuk negara perang dan gagal. [2] Kalau sudah masuk ke ranking menengah sudah tak bisa ditolak sebagai perkembangan positif. Namun sebagaimana yang saya sebutkan di atas, masih ada banyak yang harus diperbaiki.

Tahap berikut untuk melanjutkan perbaikan adalah jangan hanya obsesi di Indonesia untuk mencari dan menghukum koruptor seolah-olah proses hukuman sudah cukup. Sayang sekali pendekatan penegakan hukum jauh dari cukup.

Yang harus jauh lebih dikedepankan adalah perbaikan sistem yang dapat menjadikan perilaku korupsi tidak begitu menguntungkan atau terlalu merepotkan sehingga “not worth it”. Bukan hanya “mungkin saya bisa ditangkap”, walau risiko ini sangat penting sebagai hal yang harus dipertimbangkan oleh calon koruptor.

Teriakan untuk hal seperti hukuman mati bagi saya membuang waktu.

Hal ini dikarenakan faktor yang mengubah perilaku orang (deterrence effect) bukan beratnya jeratan pidana atau perdata melainkan kepastiannya.

Misalnya kalau saya tahu ada hukuman mati, tapi saya juga tahu bahwa hukuman tersebut masih bisa ‘dinegosiasikan dengan polisi, jaksa sampai ke hakim’, belum lagi jumlah koruptor yang ditangkap masih sangat sedikit, maka apa yang perlu ditakuti? Namun jika hukumannya hanya dipecat dari jabatan serta harus mengembalikan kerugian negara, tapi saya yakin bahwa pasti ditangkap, maka situasi mana yang akan menjadikan saya berpikir seribu kali sebelum bertindak korup?

Jadi ingat, bukan beratnya jeratan pidana atau perdata melainkan kepastian yang mengubah perilaku manusia.

Kalau perbaikan sistem kita mulai dari kesadaran akan lapangan riil dimana peraturan harus ditegakkan, yaitu situasi pranata sosial, budaya, ekonomi dan politik rakyat. Dari sana kita bisa membentuk peraturan yang rasional, terpadu dan koheren.

Contoh nyata adalah peraturan jalan 3-in-1. Sejak hari diberlakukannya sekitar tahun 1994, sudah bobrok dengan langsung munculnya industri joki dan industri susulan seperti polisi yang mencari keuntungan dari pemerasan joki, dan sebagainya. Jadi sejak hari pertama sudah gagal, namun hampir 20 tahun berikut masih dipakai! Atau UU Pemilu yang sudah cantik dan lengkap dengan 50 pasal pidana. Tapi pertanyaannya kemudian, siapa yang akan menegakannya? Ada 100.000 calon lebih, 4,6 juta staf KPU, KPUD, sampai ke KPPS, 120 juta pemilih aktif, dan entah berapa anggota tim kampanye masing-masing calon. Tapi di seluruh Indonesia hanya ada 300.000 polisi!!! Mana mungkin ditegakkan peraturan ini? Jelas-jelas tidak ditegakkan. Bolong lagi, sehingga kehadiran pasal-pasal pidana ini tidak ada efek jera atau dampak kecuali dipakai oleh pihak yang memang ditangkap sebagai alasan untuk teriak “konspirasi politik” dan sebagainya.

MH: Peran apa yang diharapkan dimainkan oleh OMS dalam rangka pemberantasan korupsi dan peningkatan integritas di Indonesia? Apakah peran-peran ini memiliki landasan legal formal, atau ini hanya moral imperative yang sekali lagi disandingkan ke pundak mereka dalam rangka transformasi sosial?

KE: Masyarakat sipil punya peran untuk tetap mengangkat isu, turut mendidik masyarakat umum tentang bahaya korupsi, membongkar kasus atau serahkan bukti korupsi dan penyalahgunaan wewenang kepada pihak yang berwajib. Mereka juga bisa membuka aib koruptor yang mencari jabatan publik termasuk anggota legislatif dan eksekutif agar rakyat dapat menilai. Koprupsi dari rakyat misalnya menuntut uang dari bakal calon juga harus dijelaskan dan dikutuk sebagai perilaku yang memperpanjang rantai korupsi oleh pihak yang bagi-bagi duit nantinya, karena orang tersebut adalah pengutang besar pada sponsor dan pendanaannya sehingga tidak bisa diharapkan akan membantu rakyat.

MH: Saat berada di Badan Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstruksi Aceh-Nias (BRR) dulu, saya familiar dengan Pakta Integritas [3] dan Conflict of Interest, apakah ini satu-satunya mekanisme yang diharapkan bisa memberantas korupsi dan meningkatkan integritas?

KE: Program seperti Pakta Integritas, pengendalian benturan kepentingan dan sebagainya merupakan alat yang dapat membangun benteng keamanan dalam lembaga dan orang di dalam agar mereka terpaksa bekerja dengan integritas, dan supaya orang luar tahu bahwa orang dalam nggak bisa main macam-macam. Kita perlu juga mengembangkan mekanisme untuk mengendalikan nepotisme. Menurut saya, nepotisme merupakan jalan menuju korupsi. Masalahnya adalah saya nggak yakin kalau orang Indonesia benar-benar menolak/mengutuk nepotisme seperti mereka mengutuk korupsi dan kolusi. Inilah kerja penting untuk masyarakat sipil, untuk meyakinkan rakyat bahwa nepotisme merupakan bentuk diskriminasi yang sangat melemahkan kapasitas bangsa untuk menghadapi masalahnya dengan fair.

Catatan Kaki:

Kevin Evans merupakan mantan Kepala Satuan Anti Korupsi (SAK) Badan Pelaksana Badan Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstruksi Aceh-Nias (BRR). Beliau merupakan founder dari http://www.pemilu.asia

Disclaimer: bincang-bincang ini terjadi jauh sebelum tertangkap tangannya kepala SKK Migas dan hakim Mahkamah Konstitusi oleh KPK dalam kasus gratifikasi, sehingga beberapa aspek terkait dengan penegakan integritas di salah satu pilar tersukses demokrasi Indonesia dan kebijakan industri ekstraktif yang dikelola pemerintah tidak tersentuh

[1] – Indeks Persepsi Korupsi atau Corruption Perceptions Index disusun oleh Transparency International setiap tahunnya untuk mengukur tingkat korupsi sektor publik. Indeks tahun 2012 mengukur persepsi korupsi 176 negara dan wilayah di seluruh dunia, yang bisa diakses di http://cpi.transparency.org/cpi2012/results/

[2] – Indeks Negara Gagal atau The Failed States Index disusun oleh the Fund for Peace bekerjasama dengan majalah Foreign Policy menempatkan Indonesia pada peringkat 64 dari 177 negara (2011), 63 dari 178 negara (2012) dan 76 dari 178 negara (2013). Indeks Negara Gagal 2013 bisa diakses di http://ffp.statesindex.org/rankings-2013-sortable

[3] – Menarik untuk dicermati bahwa Pakta Integritas merupakan salah satu tool yang diperkenalkan oleh Transparency International untuk mencegah korupsi dalam pengadaan barang/jasa pemerintah. Informasi lebih lanjut bisa didapatkan dari http://www.transparency.org/whatwedo/tools/integrity_pacts/3/ dan http://www.transparency.org/whatwedo/tools/resources_about_integrity_pacts/3/

Saya lampirkan disini Pakta Integritas dan Kesanggupan Karyawan BRR NAD-Nias yang pernah saya tanda tangani. Pakta Integritas dan Kesanggupan Karyawan BRR NAD-Nias

Connecting Norms, International Relations and Human Development

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Norms or behavioral guides institutionalize code of conduct that put limit into some choices “by making them less worthy of esteem than others” (Conge, 2010). In today’s world where goods, people, services and capital move around freely, we observe the evolution of the distribution of rewards in three different levels: the conduct of the distribution of wealth (performed by states), the appropriateness of business (performed by multinational corporations), as well as the promotion of global partnership for development (performed by UN member states and nongovernmental organizations).

Kwame Appiah in Cosmopolitanism argued about the need of reframing identity saying, “we are responsible for every other human being” (p. 2185, Kindle Book). We lived in a world of interconnectedness where the pursuit of our trivial deeds can affect millions of others. For example, the anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions to the atmosphere indeed have a perfect correlation with human behavior and climate change. Even though the effect of global warming on the world economy has been discussed largely since the release of 700- pages Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change Report in 2006, the needs for greenhouse gases’ abatement was not seen as something has to be regulated among states. It was in 1997 whenever the issues begun to get government’s attention. UNDP mentioned that the failure to control human-enhanced emission to the atmosphere would abandon the “bottom billion [1]” efforts to achieve their Millennium Development Goals. Altogether, these would reinforce inequality between the haves and the have-nots.

Earth’s atmosphere is a public good. Nation-states can easily draw their borders; entity that made many states went to war in the past. Atop of their borders, there is not much they can do. You cannot trap your greenhouse gases’ emission right above you and make sure that they are not going to travel to other part of the hemisphere. The accumulated effect of having more than enough greenhouse gases’ at the atmosphere is going to expose countries with climate change and the rise of sea level. For some, those who are belong to developing countries and least developing countries; the cost of dealing with severe drought, more violent storms and monsoonal floods becomes additional burden for the majority of the population. These countries are suffering from lack of public infrastructures and effective disaster risk reduction systems in place. People do learn their lesson from natural disasters, but if you are not supported adequately, you will just have an increased number of casualties without something you can really do about that. Lack of public infrastructure is going to add more tolls in time of disaster. Difficult access as the result means less survivors you can keep alive from injuries or sickness in the aftermath of the disaster. Once humans overload the carrying capacity of Earth’s atmosphere through their enhanced fossil fuel combustion, due to the fact that once emitted, carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases stay in the atmosphere for a long time, humans have to deal with this over decades.

Further, Kwame Appiah proposed two principles to enable us to cope with this situation. According to him, human being could do most well by pondering on the root causes of these inequalities and influencing larger policy decisions. Also, human being should be the advocates for “universal concern and respect for legitimate difference” (p. 143, Kindle Book).

First level in the evolution of the distribution of rewards is the conduct of the distribution of wealth performed by states to its citizens. Some economists challenged the development approach of the 1980s lead by Adam Smith’s theory of The Wealth of Nations and Rostovian takeoff model. These approaches presumed a close link between national economic growth, measured by Gross National Product or GNP and Purchasing Power Parity or PPP, and the distribution of wealth, thus, a better standard of living of the people. The opponents, including Dr. Mahbub ul-Haq, a world-renowned Pakistani economist, came up with an alternative model – Human Development -, which was based on following factors:

  • Growing evidence that did not support the then prevailing belief in the “trickle down” power of market forces to spread economic benefits and end poverty [2]
  • The human costs of Structural Adjustment Program became more apparent [3]
  • Social ills (crime, weakening of social fabric, HIV/AIDS, pollution, etc.) were still spreading even in cases of strong and consistent economic growth
  • A wave of democratization in the early 90’s raised hopes for people-centered models; a model of governance in which all eligible citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives

Furthermore, the late Dr. Mahbub ul-Haq emphasized that “The basic purpose of development is to enlarge people’s choices. In principle, these choices can be infinite and can change over time. […] The objective of development is to create an enabling environment for people to enjoy long, healthy and creative lives” (1998).

A fundamental change to enlarging people’s choices is building human capabilities – the range of things that people can do or be in life. The most basic capabilities for human development are to lead long and healthy lives, to be knowledgeable, to have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living and to be able to participate in the life of the community. Without these, many choices are simply not available, and many opportunities in life remain inaccessible. In this context, Human Development Index nowadays matters more for international relations to measure average achievements in a country rather than GDP per capita. It is a composite index that measures the average achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life –as measured by life expectancy at birth; knowledge –as measured by the adult literacy rate and the combined gross enrollment ratio for primary, secondary and tertiary schools; and a decent standard of living –as measured by GDP per capita in purchasing power parity (PPP) US dollars.

The second level in the evolution of the distribution of rewards is the appropriateness of business performed by multinational corporations. The proponents of civic responsibility of business challenge the basic tenets of economic liberalism. They argue that corporations operate in two worlds. One is the material world of property, resources, ownership and production. The other is world of rights and responsibilities (Conge, 2010). The latter argument is supported by the selected code of conduct that was endorsed by the United Nations and its organ. Universal Declaration of Human Rights that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 served as authoritative interpretation of the term human rights mentioned in the United Nations Charter. Its main objective was to promote and encourage respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without any discrimination in regard to race, gender, language or religion. Prior to this, in 1932 ILO Convention concerning Forced or Compulsory Labor, made it clear that each states who ratified the Convention had to suppress the use of forced or compulsory labor in all form within the shortest period possible. In 1953, ILO Convention on Equal Remuneration entered into force enunciating the concern of equal pay for equal work for both women and men.

The recent codes of conduct such as Amnesty International Human Rights Principles for Business, the Global Sullivan Principle, and the United Nations Global Compact, all gauge the necessity that multinational corporations have a responsibility to contribute to the promotion and protection of human rights. Having said this, it is now a moral imperative that the conduct of business has to deliver both rights and responsibilities for human being. We might want to recall the case of “blood diamond” when the world was alerted to the problem of conflict diamond as a funding source for rebel movements in Africa; government certification was put in place, caused the uncertified diamonds were sold at discount price. The practice appeared to have been partly responsible for the collapse of RUF in Sierra Leone and UNITA in Angola.

The same practice now is advocated to take place in regard to the mineral conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The DRC is the world’s largest producer of ore. Ore is a mineral that produces Tin (Sn), Tungsten(W), Tantatum (Ta), and Gold (Au) that end up being used in electronic devices such as cell phone. Raise Hope for Congo (http://www.raisehopeforcongo.org), a campaign aims to advocate for the protection and empowerment of Congolese women and girls, tried to pass the Conflict Mineral Trade Act becomes a law: House Resolution 131. This bill is the strongest effort to date that addresses the scourge of conflict minerals in DRC.

Vogel through The Market for Virtue made a very compelling case regarding Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), one way of assessing the impact of social expectations on business. He argued that market puts value on things, but they are a lot of variations out there about what matters more. Corporate Social Responsibility argued that the conduct of business that carefully assessed transparency, human rights and environmental protection does pay. Some nongovernmental organizations nowadays have been very active in attributing the conduct of business to social expectations. In Africa, the NGOs are trying to deal with the curse of natural resources, the fact that the ownership of natural resources has been contributed to the civil wars and political discontents, urged the world community to strengthen the rule of plays. One of them is requiring certification for every good from conflicted country to enter the world market. [4]

In addition to this, we might also want to recall the case of Chad in enunciating the most ambitious corporate effort to link energy exploration with human rights and community development. ExxonMobil invested USD3.5 billion on 660-mile pipelines from the oil fields of Chad to Cameroon. Later, the company agreed to work with NGOs and the World Bank to monitor the government’s use of its royalty payments. The practice essentially assumed the roles of development agency, human rights promoter, and environmental watchdog at the same time (p. 148).

Muhammad Yunus through Creating a World without Poverty went further to share his best practices of the success of social business. Yunus first created the Grameen Bank to provide microloans to the poor women in Bangladesh. Nowadays, he expanded his social business through the 26 sister organizations of the Grameen Bank to better serve the need of impoverished households in Bangladesh to overcome poverty. Yunus referred the requirements of being able to overcome poverty to ten-point system describes the specific living conditions. “Once a family has succeeded in clearing all ten of these hurdles [5], then we at Grameen Bank consider them to have escaped from poverty” (p. 110). Lastly, in the case of the promotion of global partnership for development, performed by UN member states and nongovernmental organizations. The United Nations adopted United Nations Millennium Goals (MDGs) in 2001 to recognize the need to assist impoverished nations more aggressively. The goals are intended to spur development by improving social and economic conditions in the world’s poorest countries to achieve a better life by the year 2015. They were derived from earlier international development targets and were officially established at the Millennium Summit in 2000, where 189 UN member states adopted the United Nations Millennium Declaration, from which the eight goals and 21 targets were promoted. The eight Millennium Development Goals are to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, and develop a global partnership for development. The goals represent a partnership between the developed countries and the developing countries “to create an environment –at the national and global levels alike- which is conducive to development and the elimination of poverty”. It is also important to note the changes the intention of serving this end brought to some existing international relations’ practices.

Despite the debate on its effectiveness, the landscape of aid policy has changed since Rosenstein-Rodan in 1943 advocated for aid to Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. At the level of ends, the basic objective of development (expressed in GDP growth) in the recipient country has been replaced by the objective of poverty alleviation (World Bank, 200). At the level of means, policy conditionality has been dramatically replaced with a concept of selectivity, in which aid agreements are only concluded with those countries whose policies are in some sense already acceptable. Furthermore, some countries are now more acceptable to grant debt cancellation or debt swap. We could recall the practice of debt-for-development swap between the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the Government of Italy signed in 2005. The agreement made it possible for the GoI to allocate the total amount of almost 30 million Euros for Aceh and Nias rehabilitation and reconstruction rather than to pay it back to Italy.

In sum, these three levels of evolution of the distribution of rewards matter for international relations; it changed the way states, multinational corporations, and the group of states working together to promote human development.

FURTHER REFERENCES

Alessandra Casella and Barry Eichengreen, Can Foreign Aid Accelerate Stabilisation in The Economic Journal 106.436 (1996): 605-619.

Alex De Waal, Democratizing the Aid Encounter in Africa in International Affairs 73.4 (1997): 623-639.

Arthur A. Goldsmith, Foreign Aid and Statehood in Africa in International Organization 55.1 (2001): 123-148.

Bjørn Lomborg (Ed.), How To Spend $50 Million To Make The World A Better Place. Cambridge: University Press, 2006.

Bruce Bueno De Mesquita and Alastair Smith, A Political Economy of Aid in International Organization 63 (Spring, 2009): 309-340.

Carl-John Dalgaard, et. Al, On the Empirics of Foreign Aid and Growth in The Economic Journal 114.496 (2004): F191-F216.

Craig Burnside and David Dollar, Aid, Policies, and Growth in The American Economic Review 90.4 (2000): 847-868.

Dambisa Moyo, Dead Aid, Why Aid Is Not Working and How There Is A Better Way For Africa. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009.

David Vogel, The Market for Virtue: The Potential and Limits of Corporate Social Responsibility. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2006

Eric Neumayer, The Determinants of Aid Allocation by Regional Multilateral Development Banks and United Nation Agencies in International Studies Quarterly 47.1 (2003): 101-122.

Hernando de Soto, The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else. New York: Basic Books, 2001

Jagdish Bhagwati, Free Trade Today, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003.

Kwame Anthony Appiah, Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers, New York: W. W. Norton, 2007

Muhammad Yunus, Creating a World Without Poverty: Social Business and the Future of Capitalism. New York: Public Affairs, 2009

Paul Collier, The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries Are Falling and What Can Be Done about It. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

________ and David Dollar, Development Effectiveness: What Have We Learnt? in The Economic Journal 114.496 (2004): F244-F271.

________ and Jan Willem Gunning, Why Has Africa Grown Slowly? in Essentials Reading in Comparative Politics. Ed. Patrick H. O’Neil and Ronald Rogowski. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 2010.

Paul Mosley, et. Al, Aid, Poverty Reduction and the ‘New Conditionality’ in The Economic Journal 114.496 (2004): F217-F243.

Philipp Harms and Matthias Lutz, Aid, Governance and Private Foreign Investment: Some Puzzling Findings for the 1990s in The Economic Journal 116 (July, 2006): 773-790.

Raghuram Rajan and Arvind Subramanian, Does Aid Affect Governance? in The American Economic Review 97.2 (2007): 322-327.

Shannon Kindornay, Brandon Lum, and Peter Sawyer, The Democratic Republic of the Congo Risk Assessment Brief, January 2009. Retrieved from http://www.carleton.ca/cifp/app/serve.php/1221.pdf

Stephen Knack, Does Foreign Aid Promote Democracy? in International Studies Quarterly 48.1 (2005): 251-266.

Thad Dunning, Conditioning the Effects of Aid: Cold War Politics, Donor Credibility, and Democracy in Africa in International Organization 58.2 (2004): 409-423.

UNDP, Human Development Report 2005, International Cooperation at a Aid, Trade, and Security in an Unequal World. ______: Hoechstetter Printing Co., 2005.

William Easterly, et. Al, Aid, Policies, and Growth: Comment in The American Economic Review 94.3 (2004): 774-780.

Amnesty International Human Rights Principle for Business

Corporate Accountability for Human Rights Abuses: A Guide for Victims and NGOs on Recourse Mechanisms

International Labor Convention: Forced or Compulsory Labor

International Labor Convention: Equal Remuneration for Men and Women

Report by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress (accessible through http://www.stiglitz-sen-fitoussi.fr/documents/rapport_anglais.pdf)

The Added Value of the UN Norms, A Comparative Analysis of the UN Norms for Business with Existing International Instruments

The Global Sullivan Principles

The United Nations Global Compact

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

ENDNOTES

[1] – The term “Bottom Billion” coined from Paul Collier’s book “The Bottom Billion, Why the Poorest Countries Are Failing and What Can Be Done About It”. He refers them as “those countries at the bottom that are falling behind, and often falling apart. They coexist with the twenty-first century but their reality is the fourteenth century: civil war, plague, and ignorance. They are concentrated in Africa and Central Asia, with a scattering elsewhere” (p. 3, 2007).

[2] – I think it is important to include the following passages from Michael P. Todaro’ Economic Development, 11th Edition, page 15 to show the failure of trickle down effect: “Dudley Seers posed the basic question about the meaning of development succinctly when he asserted: ‘The questions to ask about a country’s development are therefore: What has been happening to poverty? …[T]o unemployment? …[T]o inequality? If all three of these have declined from high levels, then beyond doubt this has been a period of development for the country concerned. If one or two of these central problems have been growing worse, especially if all three have it, it would be strange to call the result ‘development’ even if per capita income doubled’.”

[3] – It is the main vehicle of Bretton Wood’s institutions’ enforcement of their free market mantra of the 1980s: the Washington Consensus. The term was initially coined in 1989 by John Williamson to describe a set of ten specific economic policy prescriptions that he considered should constitute the “standard” reform package promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries by Washington DC-based institutions such as the IMF, World Bank and US Treasury Department. The elements of the Washington Consensus are (1) fiscal discipline; (2) redirection of public expenditure priorities towards health, education and infrastructure; (3) tax reform, including the broadening of the tax base and cutting marginal tax rates; (4) unified and competitive exchange rates; (5) secure property rights; (6) deregulation; (7) trade liberalization; (8) privatization; (9) elimination of barriers to FDI; and (10) financial liberalization.

[4] – Kimberley Process Certification Scheme is a joint governments, industry and civil society initiative to stem the flow of conflict diamonds – rough diamonds used by rebel movement to finance wars against legitimate governments (see http://www.kimberleyprocess.com/en) For more information about blood diamonds, see http://www.globalwitness.org/conflict-diamonds and http://www.globalpolicy.org/the-dark-side-of-natural-resources-st/diamonds-in-conflict.html) In addition to such practice, Revenue Watch Institute pioneered the development and implementation of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI) – global standard for transparency and accountability in the minerals sector (see http://www.revenuewatch.org/)

[5] – The ten points of specific living conditions required to escape from poverty are (p.110 – 111):

  1. The bank member and her family live in a tin-roofed house or in a house worth at least 25,000 taka (roughly equivalent to $370). The family members sleep on cots or a bedstead rather than the floor
  2. The member and her family drink pure water from tube-wells, boiled water, or arsenic-free water purified by the use of alum, purifying tablets, or pitcher filters
  3. All of the member’s children who are physically and mentally fit and above the age of six either attend or have finished primary school
  4. The member’s minimum weekly loan repayment installment is 200 taka (around $3)
  5. All family members use a hygienic and sanitary latrine
  6. All family members have sufficient clothing to meet daily needs, including winter clothes, blankets, and mosquito netting
  7. The family has additional source of income, such as a vegetable garden of fruit-bearing trees, to fall back on in times of need
  8. The member maintains an average annual balance of 5,000 taka (around $75) in her savings account
  9. The member has the ability to feed her family three square meals a day throughout the year
  10. All family members are conscious about their health, can take immediate action for proper treatment, and can pay medical expenses in the event of illness

In addition to this, Grameen Bank supports its social agenda through the Sixteen Decisions (p. 58):

  1. The four principles of Grameen Bank –Discipline, Unity, Courage, and Hard Work- we shall follow and advance in all walks of our lives
  2. We shall bring prosperity to our families
  3. We shall not live in dilapidated houses. We shall repair our houses and work towards constructing new houses as soon as possible
  4. We shall grow vegetables all the year round. We shall eat plenty of them and sell the surplus
  5. During the plantation season, we shall plant as many seedlings as possible
  6. We shall plan to keep our families small. We shall minimize our expenditures. We shall look after our health
  7. We shall educate our children and ensure that they can earn to pay for their education
  8. We shall always keep our children and the environment clean
  9. We shall build and use pit latrines
  10. We shall boil water before drinking or use alum to purify it. We shall use pitcher filters to remove arsenic
  11. We shall not take any dowry at our son’s weddings: neither shall we give any dowry in our daughters’ weddings. We shall keep the center free from the curse of dowry. We shall not practice child marriage
  12. We shall not inflict any injustice on anyone; neither shall we allow anyone to do so
  13. For higher income we shall collectively undertake bigger investments
  14. We shall always be ready to help each other. If anyone is in difficulty, we shall all help
  15. If we come to know of any breach of discipline in any center, we shall all go there and help restore discipline
  16. We shall take part in all social activities collectively

The Power of Planning Part II

2 Comments

A goal is a dream with deadline – (Source unknown)

Dalam sebuah sesi hang out setelah menjalani ujian skripsi dan revisi untuk mendapatkan gelar S. IP dari Jurusan Ilmu Hubungan Internasional UMY, saya dan tiga orang teman memutuskan untuk mampir ke Ballroom Hotel Santika Yogyakarta. Hari itu, 7 Februari 2006, sedang diselenggarakan Holland Education Fair yang dihadiri oleh perwakilan dari Universiteit van Amsterdam, Universiteit Maastricht, University of Groningen, University of Wageningen, Erasmus University dan ITC-Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation. Saya tidak menyadari bahwa ‘keisengan’ untuk mampir ke event ini menjadi defining moment untuk arah masa depan setelah menyelesaikan studi S1.

Saat itu, saya mendapatkan beberapa informasi mengenai studi ke luar negeri –sesuatu yang sudah sering saya dengar namun tidak mengetahui detailnya – seperti:

1)   Ada beasiswa untuk melanjutkan studi S2 dan S3 ke luar negeri yang diberikan kepada non-PNS

2)   Eligibility untuk melamar beasiswa diberikan kepada fresh graduates maupun mid-career professional (mereka yang telah bekerja minimal selama 2-3 tahun setelah lulus S1)

3)   Beberapa beasiswa menerapkan affirmative action misalnya untuk pelamar dari luar Jawa, perempuan, berasal dari daerah konflik atau bekerja untuk rehabilitasi dan rekonstruksi Aceh dan Nias pasca tsunami. Hal ini menjadikan kompetisi untuk mendapatkan beasiswa lebih adil bagi kelompok-kelompok tertentu.

Saya memanfaatkan kunjungan tersebut untuk mengumpulkan informasi sebanyak-banyaknya, terutama terkait StuNed (http://www.nesoindonesia.or.id/beasiswa/stuned/stuned) serta program S2 Hubungan Internasional yang ditawarkan oleh Universiteit van Amsterdam (MSc in Political Sciences: International Relations, http://www.uva.nl/en/education/master-s/master-s-programmes/item/international-relations.html?f=international+relations)

dan University of Groningen (Master Degree in International Relations and International Organization, http://www.rug.nl/masters/international-relations-and-international-organization/) Dua universitas lain menawarkan program master yang berbeda namun memiliki aspek hubungan internasional, yakni MA in Globalisation and Development Studies (Universiteit Maastricht) dan MSc in International Development Studies (University of Wageningen).

Berbekal informasi tersebut, saya mulai menyusun arah masa depan dan memberikan tenggat waktu bagi pencapaian-pencapaian pribadi, termasuk deadline untuk mulai berburu beasiswa program studi S2. Setelah wisuda, saya memutuskan untuk mengikuti sebuah pelatihan bertajuk Civic Education for Future Indonesian Leaders (CEFIL) XVII yang diselenggarakan oleh Yayasan SATUNAMA Yogyakarta dengan pendanaan dari Konrad Adenauer Stiftung. Saya berpikir, pelatihan CEFIL akan memperkuat pengetahuan, ketrampilan dan watak kewarganegaraan yang dibutuhkan untuk berkontribusi terhadap “demand for good governance”.  [Untuk testimoni saya mengenai dampak pelatihan CEFIL, silahkan baca https://mirisa.wordpress.com/2013/08/04/civic-education-kontribusinya-terhadap-transparansi-akuntabilitas-dan-voice-of-citizen/] Sebagai seseorang yang memiliki passion terhadap bidang sosial politik, saya menganggap penting untuk mengawal partisipasi dalam penyediaan pelayanan publik yang memiliki integritas. Pelatihan CEFIL, menurut hemat saya, memberikan koridor serta cetak biru bagi niat mulia tersebut.

Selanjutnya, saya memutuskan untuk berkarya di daerah kelahiran, yakni Provinsi Aceh. Saya pulang tanpa kontrak kerja namun berbekal keyakinan “saya tidak akan menganggur lama”. Alhamdulillah, saya diterima bekerja di BRR NAD-Nias sebagai International Stakeholder Relations Officer sejak 9 Juni 2006. Kompleksitas pekerjaan dan tantangan yang luar biasa saya hadapi dengan kegigihan, keteguhan dan optimisme bahwa semuanya akan berakhir indah. Sedari awal saya memahami mengenai status ad-hoc yang melekat di Badan Pelaksana Badan Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstruksi (BRR) NAD-Nias. Mandat untuk mengelola rehabilitasi dan rekonstruksi wilayah dan kehidupan masyarakat Provinsi Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam dan Kepulauan Nias Sumatera Utara hanya diberikan selama empat tahun: 16 April 2005 hingga 16 April 2009.  Sehingga, saya harus mampu mendesain exit strategy: mau kemana setelah BRR NAD-Nias tutup buku?

Exit strategy yang saya bayangkan adalah sebagai berikut:

1)   Melanjutkan studi S2 di luar negeri dengan beasiswa

2)   Bekerja dengan BRR NAD-Nias hingga berakhirnya mandat untuk memenuhi persyaratan mid-career professional. Komitmen ini bahkan memungkinkan saya untuk memenuhi aspek lain dari persyaratan beasiswa seperti: minimal masa kerja dua tahun di tempat terakhir bekerja serta linearitas latar belakang pendidikan S1, bidang kerja dan program studi master yang akan diambil.

3)   Mengakrabkan diri dengan Bahasa Inggris lisan dan tulisan, sehingga akan sangat bermanfaat untuk meningkatkan skor TOEFL, thus, mempermudah mencari beasiswa

4)   Bergabung dengan milis beasiswa@yahoogroups.com untuk mengumpulkan informasi mengenai peluang beasiswa

5)   Mengalokasikan waktu untuk melakukan community service. Saya memilih untuk terlibat aktif di Bina Antarbudaya Chapter Banda Aceh dalam proses seleksi maupun sebagai juri dalam seleksi Year Program 2008-2012 sebagai bentuk comunity service. Secara prinsip, saya memiliki kedekatan dengan Bina Antarbudaya – The Indonesian Foundation for Intercultural Learning karena merupakan returnee program AFS ke Swiss pada 2001 lalu.

Akhir 2007, saya mulai melakukan “shopping” terhadap beasiswa-beasiswa yang ditawarkan bahkan memberanikan diri untuk melamar meskipun saya sama sekali tidak berpengalaman dalam menulis essai (Personal Statement, Study Research Objective, Statement of Purpose dan sebagainya). Bagi saya, essai-essai tersebut merupakan “living document” yang terus menerus saya perbaharui, saya kembangkan, dan tulis ulang sehingga mampu “membunyikan” kualitas saya sebagai pelamar. Saya mengakui bahwa Statement of Purpose yang saya kirim untuk aplikasi beasiswa NOHA Mundus – Joint Master’s Degree Program in International Humanitarian Action [http://www.nohanet.org] (essai pertama yang saya tulis, red.) buruk sekali. Sehingga, bisa diprediksi bahwa jawaban yang saya terima adalah DITOLAK.

Namun saya tidak patah arang, saya terus melanjutkan upaya melamar beasiswa (beberapa tidak lagi saya simpan aplikasinya dan email penolakan, sehingga saya tidak terlalu precise dengan kronologinya): British Chevening, Ford Foundation, StuNed 2008, MA in International Relations offered jointly by Jacobs University Bremen and the University of Bremen [http://www.ir-bremen.de/international-relations], serta Asian Peacebuilders Scholarship (Dual Campus Master of Arts in Peace Building) dari UPEACE [http://upeace.org/academic/spec_masters/alp.cfm]

Catatan menarik dari aplikasi-aplikasi ini adalah saya tidak mendapatkan jawaban apapun dari British Chevening. Untuk Ford Foundation, saya hanya mendapatkan informasi dari milis terkait daftar kandidat yang dipanggil wawancara; nama saya tidak tertera disana. Saya melamar StuNed saat putaran aplikasi  untuk pelamar dari luar Jawa, namun ditolak dan disarankan untuk mengikuti putaran aplikasi umum karena mereka tidak menerima sertifikat TOEFL prediction. Well, saya menerima penolakan StuNed namun memutuskan untuk tidak mengikuti saran mereka, better find other scholarship providers who accepts your TOEFL prediction’ score.

Kemudian, saya disarankan untuk melamar beasiswa Fulbright Tsunami Relief Initiative oleh beberapa teman. I did dan merasa beruntung karena saya bahkan tidak kesulitan untuk memenuhi persyaratan seperti IPK minimal; I had encountered this issue since I decided to pursue my undergraduate so no headache at all! [Silahkan baca https://mirisa.wordpress.com/2009/03/07/the-power-of-planning/] Saya melamar sebelum deadline 31 Mei 2008. Sebelumnya, saya benar-benar mengalokasikan waktu untuk mempersiapkan lamaran dan semua dokumen pendukung.

Then, saya terharu karena tidak menyangka bahwa saya akan mendapatkan beasiswa Fulbright di kali pertama melamar. Saya berangkat ke USA pada 31 Mei 2009 untuk memulai pre-academic training selama 9 minggu di Spring International Language Center at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. Pada Fall 2009 saya memulai semester pertama di program Master of Arts in Political Science, J. William Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville.

When I finally got my MA degree in Fall 2011, I told my self that indeed, “A goal is a dream with deadline”. Melihat kembali perjalanan hidup saya setelah menyelesaikan kuliah S1 dan mulai memasuki dunia kerja profesional, saya merasa tidak sedikit pun rugi karena telah memberikan tenggat waktu yang ketat bagi pencapaian-pencapaian pribadi serta sangat keras menegakkan disiplin untuk diri sendiri; those are necessary to reach what I aim to achieve in my life. Bermimpi akan banyak hal, serta berusaha sekuat tenaga untuk mewujudkan mimpi-mimpi tersebut menjadi kenyataan, harus dibarengi dengan tenggat waktu, thus the whole universe will conspire to help us.

END NOTES

Saya menemukan bahwa dokumen berikut sangat membantu proses finalisasi Study Research Objective dan Personal Statement yang saya lampirkan untuk melamar beasiswa Fulbright Tsunami Relief Initiative How to Write a Successful Statement of Purpose for Graduate Schools

 

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