Bincang-Bincang dengan Kevin Evans tentang Korupsi dan Penegakan Integritas

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Mirisa Hasfaria (MH): Sejak reformasi bergulir, Indonesia sudah membentuk atau mereformasi institusi-institusi yang akan mengawal tata pemerintahan yang baik dan akuntabel, seperti membentuk KPK, atau mereformasi Badan Pengawasan Keuangan dan Pembangunan (BPKP) dan Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan (BPK). Namun mengapa tidak ada transformasi yang signifikan terkait dengan komitmen pemberantasan korupsi dan penegakan integritas di Indonesia?

Kevin Evans (KE): Isu pertama adalah apakah tidak ada kemajuan di Indonesia di bidang ini? Saya rasa jawaban adalah banyak. Bahwasanya koran dan TV penuh isu-isu dan skandal korupsi disebabkan “bad news sells” dan manusia dimana-mana nampak suka melihat orang hebat jatuh, apalagi jika kejatuhan dapat dikaitkan dengan kezoliman atau ketidak-adilan seperti korupsi.

Koran penuh dengan berita ini, yang sebetulnya mengisi ranah publik dan perspektif masyarakat umum karena empat hal:

  1. Bad news sells
  2. Masyarakat tidak lagi mentolerir perilaku korupsi (contoh paling nyata upaya untuk menjatuhkan KPK gagal karena rakyat menuntut balik dan tidak ada politikus yang berani melawan tsunami pendapat publik serta partai yang dianggap bau korupsi mati – lihat Demokrat dan PKS saat ini atau PDIP dulu, atau Golkar sebelum itu;
  3. Rakyat semakin peka dan mengerti masalah dan dampak korupsi sehingga lebih pintar “mencium”nya dari pada dulu
  4. Pers di Indonesia sudah bebas untuk mengkritik atau mengudarakan “bad news” yang memojokkan pihak yang berkuasa. Hal ini sangat berbeda dari zaman dulu.

Akibat dari hal tersebut di atas adalah kebanjiran berita mengenai hal yang layak dibaca publik. Dengan demikian kesan dan persepsi yang kemudian muncul adalah keadaan saat ini lebih buruk dari dulu ,padahal belum tentu. Justru kebebasan untuk mempertanggungjawabkan penguasa merupakan satu pintu yang membongkar dan mengerdilkan potensi korupsi berskala besar.

Mari kita elaborasi poin 3. Kalau anak SBY mau masuk ke kancah politik istilah di Indonesia adalah nepotisme bahkan nepotisme akbar. Di Singapura anak mantan perdana menteri (Lee Hsien Loong, putra tertua Lee Kuan Yew) dijadikan perdana menteri disambut sebagai bukti kehebatan keluarga tersebut!!! Di Indonesia anak SBY belum apa-apa sudah disikapi demikian. Anak Lee Kuan Yew bahkan jadi dan tidak ada komentar negatif. Mengapa demikian??

Jadi, saya tidak setuju kalau tidak ada kemajuan untuk mengatasi masalah korupsi di Indonesia. Grafis tentang persepsi korupsi menunjukkan bahwa pada tahun 1999, Indonesia menempati ranking ketiga terburuk di dunia dengan nilai 1,9 dari 10. [1] Pada tahun 2011 ranking Indonesia sudah naik sampai ke 3,0 dan setara dengan Meksiko dan Argentina dan letaknya di posisi menengah di dunia, bukan lagi di bawah.

Nah kalau rakyat masih jauh dari puas merupakan petanda baik bahwa mereka tetap menuntut perbaikan lagi. Dan memang masih banyak yang harus diperbaiki. Namun demikian sudah saatnya rakyat di sini mulai menilai diri secara lebih bermartabat daripada dulu. Indonesia tidak lagi seburuk negara perang dan gagal. [2] Kalau sudah masuk ke ranking menengah sudah tak bisa ditolak sebagai perkembangan positif. Namun sebagaimana yang saya sebutkan di atas, masih ada banyak yang harus diperbaiki.

Tahap berikut untuk melanjutkan perbaikan adalah jangan hanya obsesi di Indonesia untuk mencari dan menghukum koruptor seolah-olah proses hukuman sudah cukup. Sayang sekali pendekatan penegakan hukum jauh dari cukup.

Yang harus jauh lebih dikedepankan adalah perbaikan sistem yang dapat menjadikan perilaku korupsi tidak begitu menguntungkan atau terlalu merepotkan sehingga “not worth it”. Bukan hanya “mungkin saya bisa ditangkap”, walau risiko ini sangat penting sebagai hal yang harus dipertimbangkan oleh calon koruptor.

Teriakan untuk hal seperti hukuman mati bagi saya membuang waktu.

Hal ini dikarenakan faktor yang mengubah perilaku orang (deterrence effect) bukan beratnya jeratan pidana atau perdata melainkan kepastiannya.

Misalnya kalau saya tahu ada hukuman mati, tapi saya juga tahu bahwa hukuman tersebut masih bisa ‘dinegosiasikan dengan polisi, jaksa sampai ke hakim’, belum lagi jumlah koruptor yang ditangkap masih sangat sedikit, maka apa yang perlu ditakuti? Namun jika hukumannya hanya dipecat dari jabatan serta harus mengembalikan kerugian negara, tapi saya yakin bahwa pasti ditangkap, maka situasi mana yang akan menjadikan saya berpikir seribu kali sebelum bertindak korup?

Jadi ingat, bukan beratnya jeratan pidana atau perdata melainkan kepastian yang mengubah perilaku manusia.

Kalau perbaikan sistem kita mulai dari kesadaran akan lapangan riil dimana peraturan harus ditegakkan, yaitu situasi pranata sosial, budaya, ekonomi dan politik rakyat. Dari sana kita bisa membentuk peraturan yang rasional, terpadu dan koheren.

Contoh nyata adalah peraturan jalan 3-in-1. Sejak hari diberlakukannya sekitar tahun 1994, sudah bobrok dengan langsung munculnya industri joki dan industri susulan seperti polisi yang mencari keuntungan dari pemerasan joki, dan sebagainya. Jadi sejak hari pertama sudah gagal, namun hampir 20 tahun berikut masih dipakai! Atau UU Pemilu yang sudah cantik dan lengkap dengan 50 pasal pidana. Tapi pertanyaannya kemudian, siapa yang akan menegakannya? Ada 100.000 calon lebih, 4,6 juta staf KPU, KPUD, sampai ke KPPS, 120 juta pemilih aktif, dan entah berapa anggota tim kampanye masing-masing calon. Tapi di seluruh Indonesia hanya ada 300.000 polisi!!! Mana mungkin ditegakkan peraturan ini? Jelas-jelas tidak ditegakkan. Bolong lagi, sehingga kehadiran pasal-pasal pidana ini tidak ada efek jera atau dampak kecuali dipakai oleh pihak yang memang ditangkap sebagai alasan untuk teriak “konspirasi politik” dan sebagainya.

MH: Peran apa yang diharapkan dimainkan oleh OMS dalam rangka pemberantasan korupsi dan peningkatan integritas di Indonesia? Apakah peran-peran ini memiliki landasan legal formal, atau ini hanya moral imperative yang sekali lagi disandingkan ke pundak mereka dalam rangka transformasi sosial?

KE: Masyarakat sipil punya peran untuk tetap mengangkat isu, turut mendidik masyarakat umum tentang bahaya korupsi, membongkar kasus atau serahkan bukti korupsi dan penyalahgunaan wewenang kepada pihak yang berwajib. Mereka juga bisa membuka aib koruptor yang mencari jabatan publik termasuk anggota legislatif dan eksekutif agar rakyat dapat menilai. Koprupsi dari rakyat misalnya menuntut uang dari bakal calon juga harus dijelaskan dan dikutuk sebagai perilaku yang memperpanjang rantai korupsi oleh pihak yang bagi-bagi duit nantinya, karena orang tersebut adalah pengutang besar pada sponsor dan pendanaannya sehingga tidak bisa diharapkan akan membantu rakyat.

MH: Saat berada di Badan Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstruksi Aceh-Nias (BRR) dulu, saya familiar dengan Pakta Integritas [3] dan Conflict of Interest, apakah ini satu-satunya mekanisme yang diharapkan bisa memberantas korupsi dan meningkatkan integritas?

KE: Program seperti Pakta Integritas, pengendalian benturan kepentingan dan sebagainya merupakan alat yang dapat membangun benteng keamanan dalam lembaga dan orang di dalam agar mereka terpaksa bekerja dengan integritas, dan supaya orang luar tahu bahwa orang dalam nggak bisa main macam-macam. Kita perlu juga mengembangkan mekanisme untuk mengendalikan nepotisme. Menurut saya, nepotisme merupakan jalan menuju korupsi. Masalahnya adalah saya nggak yakin kalau orang Indonesia benar-benar menolak/mengutuk nepotisme seperti mereka mengutuk korupsi dan kolusi. Inilah kerja penting untuk masyarakat sipil, untuk meyakinkan rakyat bahwa nepotisme merupakan bentuk diskriminasi yang sangat melemahkan kapasitas bangsa untuk menghadapi masalahnya dengan fair.

Catatan Kaki:

Kevin Evans merupakan mantan Kepala Satuan Anti Korupsi (SAK) Badan Pelaksana Badan Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstruksi Aceh-Nias (BRR). Beliau merupakan founder dari http://www.pemilu.asia

Disclaimer: bincang-bincang ini terjadi jauh sebelum tertangkap tangannya kepala SKK Migas dan hakim Mahkamah Konstitusi oleh KPK dalam kasus gratifikasi, sehingga beberapa aspek terkait dengan penegakan integritas di salah satu pilar tersukses demokrasi Indonesia dan kebijakan industri ekstraktif yang dikelola pemerintah tidak tersentuh

[1] – Indeks Persepsi Korupsi atau Corruption Perceptions Index disusun oleh Transparency International setiap tahunnya untuk mengukur tingkat korupsi sektor publik. Indeks tahun 2012 mengukur persepsi korupsi 176 negara dan wilayah di seluruh dunia, yang bisa diakses di http://cpi.transparency.org/cpi2012/results/

[2] – Indeks Negara Gagal atau The Failed States Index disusun oleh the Fund for Peace bekerjasama dengan majalah Foreign Policy menempatkan Indonesia pada peringkat 64 dari 177 negara (2011), 63 dari 178 negara (2012) dan 76 dari 178 negara (2013). Indeks Negara Gagal 2013 bisa diakses di http://ffp.statesindex.org/rankings-2013-sortable

[3] – Menarik untuk dicermati bahwa Pakta Integritas merupakan salah satu tool yang diperkenalkan oleh Transparency International untuk mencegah korupsi dalam pengadaan barang/jasa pemerintah. Informasi lebih lanjut bisa didapatkan dari http://www.transparency.org/whatwedo/tools/integrity_pacts/3/ dan http://www.transparency.org/whatwedo/tools/resources_about_integrity_pacts/3/

Saya lampirkan disini Pakta Integritas dan Kesanggupan Karyawan BRR NAD-Nias yang pernah saya tanda tangani. Pakta Integritas dan Kesanggupan Karyawan BRR NAD-Nias

Connecting Norms, International Relations and Human Development

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Norms or behavioral guides institutionalize code of conduct that put limit into some choices “by making them less worthy of esteem than others” (Conge, 2010). In today’s world where goods, people, services and capital move around freely, we observe the evolution of the distribution of rewards in three different levels: the conduct of the distribution of wealth (performed by states), the appropriateness of business (performed by multinational corporations), as well as the promotion of global partnership for development (performed by UN member states and nongovernmental organizations).

Kwame Appiah in Cosmopolitanism argued about the need of reframing identity saying, “we are responsible for every other human being” (p. 2185, Kindle Book). We lived in a world of interconnectedness where the pursuit of our trivial deeds can affect millions of others. For example, the anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions to the atmosphere indeed have a perfect correlation with human behavior and climate change. Even though the effect of global warming on the world economy has been discussed largely since the release of 700- pages Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change Report in 2006, the needs for greenhouse gases’ abatement was not seen as something has to be regulated among states. It was in 1997 whenever the issues begun to get government’s attention. UNDP mentioned that the failure to control human-enhanced emission to the atmosphere would abandon the “bottom billion [1]” efforts to achieve their Millennium Development Goals. Altogether, these would reinforce inequality between the haves and the have-nots.

Earth’s atmosphere is a public good. Nation-states can easily draw their borders; entity that made many states went to war in the past. Atop of their borders, there is not much they can do. You cannot trap your greenhouse gases’ emission right above you and make sure that they are not going to travel to other part of the hemisphere. The accumulated effect of having more than enough greenhouse gases’ at the atmosphere is going to expose countries with climate change and the rise of sea level. For some, those who are belong to developing countries and least developing countries; the cost of dealing with severe drought, more violent storms and monsoonal floods becomes additional burden for the majority of the population. These countries are suffering from lack of public infrastructures and effective disaster risk reduction systems in place. People do learn their lesson from natural disasters, but if you are not supported adequately, you will just have an increased number of casualties without something you can really do about that. Lack of public infrastructure is going to add more tolls in time of disaster. Difficult access as the result means less survivors you can keep alive from injuries or sickness in the aftermath of the disaster. Once humans overload the carrying capacity of Earth’s atmosphere through their enhanced fossil fuel combustion, due to the fact that once emitted, carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases stay in the atmosphere for a long time, humans have to deal with this over decades.

Further, Kwame Appiah proposed two principles to enable us to cope with this situation. According to him, human being could do most well by pondering on the root causes of these inequalities and influencing larger policy decisions. Also, human being should be the advocates for “universal concern and respect for legitimate difference” (p. 143, Kindle Book).

First level in the evolution of the distribution of rewards is the conduct of the distribution of wealth performed by states to its citizens. Some economists challenged the development approach of the 1980s lead by Adam Smith’s theory of The Wealth of Nations and Rostovian takeoff model. These approaches presumed a close link between national economic growth, measured by Gross National Product or GNP and Purchasing Power Parity or PPP, and the distribution of wealth, thus, a better standard of living of the people. The opponents, including Dr. Mahbub ul-Haq, a world-renowned Pakistani economist, came up with an alternative model – Human Development -, which was based on following factors:

  • Growing evidence that did not support the then prevailing belief in the “trickle down” power of market forces to spread economic benefits and end poverty [2]
  • The human costs of Structural Adjustment Program became more apparent [3]
  • Social ills (crime, weakening of social fabric, HIV/AIDS, pollution, etc.) were still spreading even in cases of strong and consistent economic growth
  • A wave of democratization in the early 90’s raised hopes for people-centered models; a model of governance in which all eligible citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives

Furthermore, the late Dr. Mahbub ul-Haq emphasized that “The basic purpose of development is to enlarge people’s choices. In principle, these choices can be infinite and can change over time. […] The objective of development is to create an enabling environment for people to enjoy long, healthy and creative lives” (1998).

A fundamental change to enlarging people’s choices is building human capabilities – the range of things that people can do or be in life. The most basic capabilities for human development are to lead long and healthy lives, to be knowledgeable, to have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living and to be able to participate in the life of the community. Without these, many choices are simply not available, and many opportunities in life remain inaccessible. In this context, Human Development Index nowadays matters more for international relations to measure average achievements in a country rather than GDP per capita. It is a composite index that measures the average achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life –as measured by life expectancy at birth; knowledge –as measured by the adult literacy rate and the combined gross enrollment ratio for primary, secondary and tertiary schools; and a decent standard of living –as measured by GDP per capita in purchasing power parity (PPP) US dollars.

The second level in the evolution of the distribution of rewards is the appropriateness of business performed by multinational corporations. The proponents of civic responsibility of business challenge the basic tenets of economic liberalism. They argue that corporations operate in two worlds. One is the material world of property, resources, ownership and production. The other is world of rights and responsibilities (Conge, 2010). The latter argument is supported by the selected code of conduct that was endorsed by the United Nations and its organ. Universal Declaration of Human Rights that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 served as authoritative interpretation of the term human rights mentioned in the United Nations Charter. Its main objective was to promote and encourage respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without any discrimination in regard to race, gender, language or religion. Prior to this, in 1932 ILO Convention concerning Forced or Compulsory Labor, made it clear that each states who ratified the Convention had to suppress the use of forced or compulsory labor in all form within the shortest period possible. In 1953, ILO Convention on Equal Remuneration entered into force enunciating the concern of equal pay for equal work for both women and men.

The recent codes of conduct such as Amnesty International Human Rights Principles for Business, the Global Sullivan Principle, and the United Nations Global Compact, all gauge the necessity that multinational corporations have a responsibility to contribute to the promotion and protection of human rights. Having said this, it is now a moral imperative that the conduct of business has to deliver both rights and responsibilities for human being. We might want to recall the case of “blood diamond” when the world was alerted to the problem of conflict diamond as a funding source for rebel movements in Africa; government certification was put in place, caused the uncertified diamonds were sold at discount price. The practice appeared to have been partly responsible for the collapse of RUF in Sierra Leone and UNITA in Angola.

The same practice now is advocated to take place in regard to the mineral conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The DRC is the world’s largest producer of ore. Ore is a mineral that produces Tin (Sn), Tungsten (W), Tantatum (Ta), and Gold (Au) that end up being used in electronic devices such as cell phone. Raise Hope for Congo (http://www.raisehopeforcongo.org), a campaign aims to advocate for the protection and empowerment of Congolese women and girls, tried to pass the Conflict Mineral Trade Act becomes a law: House Resolution 131. This bill is the strongest effort to date that addresses the scourge of conflict minerals in DRC.

Vogel through The Market for Virtue made a very compelling case regarding Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), one way of assessing the impact of social expectations on business. He argued that market puts value on things, but they are a lot of variations out there about what matters more. Corporate Social Responsibility argued that the conduct of business that carefully assessed transparency, human rights and environmental protection does pay. Some nongovernmental organizations nowadays have been very active in attributing the conduct of business to social expectations. In Africa, the NGOs are trying to deal with the curse of natural resources, the fact that the ownership of natural resources has been contributed to the civil wars and political discontents, urged the world community to strengthen the rule of plays. One of them is requiring certification for every good from conflicted country to enter the world market. [4]

In addition to this, we might also want to recall the case of Chad in enunciating the most ambitious corporate effort to link energy exploration with human rights and community development. ExxonMobil invested USD3.5 billion on 660-mile pipelines from the oil fields of Chad to Cameroon. Later, the company agreed to work with NGOs and the World Bank to monitor the government’s use of its royalty payments. The practice essentially assumed the roles of development agency, human rights promoter, and environmental watchdog at the same time (p. 148).

Muhammad Yunus through Creating a World without Poverty went further to share his best practices of the success of social business. Yunus first created the Grameen Bank to provide microloans to the poor women in Bangladesh. Nowadays, he expanded his social business through the 26 sister organizations of the Grameen Bank to better serve the need of impoverished households in Bangladesh to overcome poverty. Yunus referred the requirements of being able to overcome poverty to ten-point system describes the specific living conditions. “Once a family has succeeded in clearing all ten of these hurdles [5], then we at Grameen Bank consider them to have escaped from poverty” (p. 110). Lastly, in the case of the promotion of global partnership for development, performed by UN member states and nongovernmental organizations. The United Nations adopted United Nations Millennium Goals (MDGs) in 2001 to recognize the need to assist impoverished nations more aggressively. The goals are intended to spur development by improving social and economic conditions in the world’s poorest countries to achieve a better life by the year 2015. They were derived from earlier international development targets and were officially established at the Millennium Summit in 2000, where 189 UN member states adopted the United Nations Millennium Declaration, from which the eight goals and 21 targets were promoted. The eight Millennium Development Goals are to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, and develop a global partnership for development. The goals represent a partnership between the developed countries and the developing countries “to create an environment –at the national and global levels alike- which is conducive to development and the elimination of poverty”. It is also important to note the changes the intention of serving this end brought to some existing international relations’ practices.

Despite the debate on its effectiveness, the landscape of aid policy has changed since Rosenstein-Rodan in 1943 advocated for aid to Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. At the level of ends, the basic objective of development (expressed in GDP growth) in the recipient country has been replaced by the objective of poverty alleviation (World Bank, 200). At the level of means, policy conditionality has been dramatically replaced with a concept of selectivity, in which aid agreements are only concluded with those countries whose policies are in some sense already acceptable. Furthermore, some countries are now more acceptable to grant debt cancellation or debt swap. We could recall the practice of debt-for-development swap between the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the Government of Italy signed in 2005. The agreement made it possible for the GoI to allocate the total amount of almost 30 million Euros for Aceh and Nias rehabilitation and reconstruction rather than to pay it back to Italy.

In sum, these three levels of evolution of the distribution of rewards matter for international relations; it changed the way states, multinational corporations, and the group of states working together to promote human development.

FURTHER REFERENCES

Alessandra Casella and Barry Eichengreen, Can Foreign Aid Accelerate Stabilisation in The Economic Journal 106.436 (1996): 605-619.

Alex De Waal, Democratizing the Aid Encounter in Africa in International Affairs 73.4 (1997): 623-639.

Arthur A. Goldsmith, Foreign Aid and Statehood in Africa in International Organization 55.1 (2001): 123-148.

Bjørn Lomborg (Ed.), How To Spend $50 Million To Make The World A Better Place. Cambridge: University Press, 2006.

Bruce Bueno De Mesquita and Alastair Smith, A Political Economy of Aid in International Organization 63 (Spring, 2009): 309-340.

Carl-John Dalgaard, et. Al, On the Empirics of Foreign Aid and Growth in The Economic Journal 114.496 (2004): F191-F216.

Craig Burnside and David Dollar, Aid, Policies, and Growth in The American Economic Review 90.4 (2000): 847-868.

Dambisa Moyo, Dead Aid, Why Aid Is Not Working and How There Is A Better Way For Africa. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009.

David Vogel, The Market for Virtue: The Potential and Limits of Corporate Social Responsibility. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2006

Eric Neumayer, The Determinants of Aid Allocation by Regional Multilateral Development Banks and United Nation Agencies in International Studies Quarterly 47.1 (2003): 101-122.

Hernando de Soto, The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else. New York: Basic Books, 2001

Jagdish Bhagwati, Free Trade Today, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003.

Kwame Anthony Appiah, Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers, New York: W. W. Norton, 2007

Muhammad Yunus, Creating a World Without Poverty: Social Business and the Future of Capitalism. New York: Public Affairs, 2009

Paul Collier, The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries Are Falling and What Can Be Done about It. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

________ and David Dollar, Development Effectiveness: What Have We Learnt? in The Economic Journal 114.496 (2004): F244-F271.

________ and Jan Willem Gunning, Why Has Africa Grown Slowly? in Essentials Reading in Comparative Politics. Ed. Patrick H. O’Neil and Ronald Rogowski. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 2010.

Paul Mosley, et. Al, Aid, Poverty Reduction and the ‘New Conditionality’ in The Economic Journal 114.496 (2004): F217-F243.

Philipp Harms and Matthias Lutz, Aid, Governance and Private Foreign Investment: Some Puzzling Findings for the 1990s in The Economic Journal 116 (July, 2006): 773-790.

Raghuram Rajan and Arvind Subramanian, Does Aid Affect Governance? in The American Economic Review 97.2 (2007): 322-327.

Shannon Kindornay, Brandon Lum, and Peter Sawyer, The Democratic Republic of the Congo Risk Assessment Brief, January 2009. Retrieved from http://www.carleton.ca/cifp/app/serve.php/1221.pdf

Stephen Knack, Does Foreign Aid Promote Democracy? in International Studies Quarterly 48.1 (2005): 251-266.

Thad Dunning, Conditioning the Effects of Aid: Cold War Politics, Donor Credibility, and Democracy in Africa in International Organization 58.2 (2004): 409-423.

UNDP, Human Development Report 2005, International Cooperation at a Aid, Trade, and Security in an Unequal World. ______: Hoechstetter Printing Co., 2005.

William Easterly, et. Al, Aid, Policies, and Growth: Comment in The American Economic Review 94.3 (2004): 774-780.

Amnesty International Human Rights Principle for Business

Corporate Accountability for Human Rights Abuses: A Guide for Victims and NGOs on Recourse Mechanisms

International Labor Convention: Forced or Compulsory Labor

International Labor Convention: Equal Remuneration for Men and Women

Report by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress (accessible through http://www.stiglitz-sen-fitoussi.fr/documents/rapport_anglais.pdf)

The Added Value of the UN Norms, A Comparative Analysis of the UN Norms for Business with Existing International Instruments

The Global Sullivan Principles

The United Nations Global Compact

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

ENDNOTES

[1] – The term “Bottom Billion” coined from Paul Collier’s book “The Bottom Billion, Why the Poorest Countries Are Failing and What Can Be Done About It”. He refers them as “those countries at the bottom that are falling behind, and often falling apart. They coexist with the twenty-first century but their reality is the fourteenth century: civil war, plague, and ignorance. They are concentrated in Africa and Central Asia, with a scattering elsewhere” (p. 3, 2007).

[2] – I think it is important to include the following passages from Michael P. Todaro’ Economic Development, 11th Edition, page 15 to show the failure of trickle down effect: “Dudley Seers posed the basic question about the meaning of development succinctly when he asserted: ‘The questions to ask about a country’s development are therefore: What has been happening to poverty? …[T]o unemployment? …[T]o inequality? If all three of these have declined from high levels, then beyond doubt this has been a period of development for the country concerned. If one or two of these central problems have been growing worse, especially if all three have it, it would be strange to call the result ‘development’ even if per capita income doubled’.”

[3] – It is the main vehicle of Bretton Wood’s institutions’ enforcement of their free market mantra of the 1980s: the Washington Consensus. The term was initially coined in 1989 by John Williamson to describe a set of ten specific economic policy prescriptions that he considered should constitute the “standard” reform package promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries by Washington DC-based institutions such as the IMF, World Bank and US Treasury Department. The elements of the Washington Consensus are (1) fiscal discipline; (2) redirection of public expenditure priorities towards health, education and infrastructure; (3) tax reform, including the broadening of the tax base and cutting marginal tax rates; (4) unified and competitive exchange rates; (5) secure property rights; (6) deregulation; (7) trade liberalization; (8) privatization; (9) elimination of barriers to FDI; and (10) financial liberalization.

[4] – Kimberley Process Certification Scheme is a joint governments, industry and civil society initiative to stem the flow of conflict diamonds – rough diamonds used by rebel movement to finance wars against legitimate governments (see http://www.kimberleyprocess.com/en) For more information about blood diamonds, see http://www.globalwitness.org/conflict-diamonds and http://www.globalpolicy.org/the-dark-side-of-natural-resources-st/diamonds-in-conflict.html) In addition to such practice, Revenue Watch Institute pioneered the development and implementation of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI) – global standard for transparency and accountability in the minerals sector (see http://www.revenuewatch.org/)

[5] – The ten points of specific living conditions required to escape from poverty are (p.110 – 111):

  1. The bank member and her family live in a tin-roofed house or in a house worth at least 25,000 taka (roughly equivalent to $370). The family members sleep on cots or a bedstead rather than the floor
  2. The member and her family drink pure water from tube-wells, boiled water, or arsenic-free water purified by the use of alum, purifying tablets, or pitcher filters
  3. All of the member’s children who are physically and mentally fit and above the age of six either attend or have finished primary school
  4. The member’s minimum weekly loan repayment installment is 200 taka (around $3)
  5. All family members use a hygienic and sanitary latrine
  6. All family members have sufficient clothing to meet daily needs, including winter clothes, blankets, and mosquito netting
  7. The family has additional source of income, such as a vegetable garden of fruit-bearing trees, to fall back on in times of need
  8. The member maintains an average annual balance of 5,000 taka (around $75) in her savings account
  9. The member has the ability to feed her family three square meals a day throughout the year
  10. All family members are conscious about their health, can take immediate action for proper treatment, and can pay medical expenses in the event of illness

In addition to this, Grameen Bank supports its social agenda through the Sixteen Decisions (p. 58):

  1. The four principles of Grameen Bank –Discipline, Unity, Courage, and Hard Work- we shall follow and advance in all walks of our lives
  2. We shall bring prosperity to our families
  3. We shall not live in dilapidated houses. We shall repair our houses and work towards constructing new houses as soon as possible
  4. We shall grow vegetables all the year round. We shall eat plenty of them and sell the surplus
  5. During the plantation season, we shall plant as many seedlings as possible
  6. We shall plan to keep our families small. We shall minimize our expenditures. We shall look after our health
  7. We shall educate our children and ensure that they can earn to pay for their education
  8. We shall always keep our children and the environment clean
  9. We shall build and use pit latrines
  10. We shall boil water before drinking or use alum to purify it. We shall use pitcher filters to remove arsenic
  11. We shall not take any dowry at our son’s weddings: neither shall we give any dowry in our daughters’ weddings. We shall keep the center free from the curse of dowry. We shall not practice child marriage
  12. We shall not inflict any injustice on anyone; neither shall we allow anyone to do so
  13. For higher income we shall collectively undertake bigger investments
  14. We shall always be ready to help each other. If anyone is in difficulty, we shall all help
  15. If we come to know of any breach of discipline in any center, we shall all go there and help restore discipline
  16. We shall take part in all social activities collectively

The Power of Planning Part II

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A goal is a dream with deadline – (Source unknown)

Dalam sebuah sesi hang out setelah menjalani ujian skripsi dan revisi untuk mendapatkan gelar S. IP dari Jurusan Ilmu Hubungan Internasional UMY, saya dan tiga orang teman memutuskan untuk mampir ke Ballroom Hotel Santika Yogyakarta. Hari itu, 7 Februari 2006, sedang diselenggarakan Holland Education Fair yang dihadiri oleh perwakilan dari Universiteit van Amsterdam, Universiteit Maastricht, University of Groningen, University of Wageningen, Erasmus University dan ITC-Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation. Saya tidak menyadari bahwa ‘keisengan’ untuk mampir ke event ini menjadi defining moment untuk arah masa depan setelah menyelesaikan studi S1.

Saat itu, saya mendapatkan beberapa informasi mengenai studi ke luar negeri –sesuatu yang sudah sering saya dengar namun tidak mengetahui detailnya – seperti:

1)   Ada beasiswa untuk melanjutkan studi S2 dan S3 ke luar negeri yang diberikan kepada non-PNS

2)   Eligibility untuk melamar beasiswa diberikan kepada fresh graduates maupun mid-career professional (mereka yang telah bekerja minimal selama 2-3 tahun setelah lulus S1)

3)   Beberapa beasiswa menerapkan affirmative action misalnya untuk pelamar dari luar Jawa, perempuan, berasal dari daerah konflik atau bekerja untuk rehabilitasi dan rekonstruksi Aceh dan Nias pasca tsunami. Hal ini menjadikan kompetisi untuk mendapatkan beasiswa lebih adil bagi kelompok-kelompok tertentu.

Saya memanfaatkan kunjungan tersebut untuk mengumpulkan informasi sebanyak-banyaknya, terutama terkait StuNed (http://www.nesoindonesia.or.id/beasiswa/stuned/stuned) serta program S2 Hubungan Internasional yang ditawarkan oleh Universiteit van Amsterdam (MSc in Political Sciences: International Relations, http://www.uva.nl/en/education/master-s/master-s-programmes/item/international-relations.html?f=international+relations)

dan University of Groningen (Master Degree in International Relations and International Organization, http://www.rug.nl/masters/international-relations-and-international-organization/) Dua universitas lain menawarkan program master yang berbeda namun memiliki aspek hubungan internasional, yakni MA in Globalisation and Development Studies (Universiteit Maastricht) dan MSc in International Development Studies (University of Wageningen).

Berbekal informasi tersebut, saya mulai menyusun arah masa depan dan memberikan tenggat waktu bagi pencapaian-pencapaian pribadi, termasuk deadline untuk mulai berburu beasiswa program studi S2. Setelah wisuda, saya memutuskan untuk mengikuti sebuah pelatihan bertajuk Civic Education for Future Indonesian Leaders (CEFIL) XVII yang diselenggarakan oleh Yayasan SATUNAMA Yogyakarta dengan pendanaan dari Konrad Adenauer Stiftung. Saya berpikir, pelatihan CEFIL akan memperkuat pengetahuan, ketrampilan dan watak kewarganegaraan yang dibutuhkan untuk berkontribusi terhadap “demand for good governance”.  [Untuk testimoni saya mengenai dampak pelatihan CEFIL, silahkan baca http://mirisa.wordpress.com/2013/08/04/civic-education-kontribusinya-terhadap-transparansi-akuntabilitas-dan-voice-of-citizen/] Sebagai seseorang yang memiliki passion terhadap bidang sosial politik, saya menganggap penting untuk mengawal partisipasi dalam penyediaan pelayanan publik yang memiliki integritas. Pelatihan CEFIL, menurut hemat saya, memberikan koridor serta cetak biru bagi niat mulia tersebut.

Selanjutnya, saya memutuskan untuk berkarya di daerah kelahiran, yakni Provinsi Aceh. Saya pulang tanpa kontrak kerja namun berbekal keyakinan “saya tidak akan menganggur lama”. Alhamdulillah, saya diterima bekerja di BRR NAD-Nias sebagai International Stakeholder Relations Officer sejak 9 Juni 2006. Kompleksitas pekerjaan dan tantangan yang luar biasa saya hadapi dengan kegigihan, keteguhan dan optimisme bahwa semuanya akan berakhir indah. Sedari awal saya memahami mengenai status ad-hoc yang melekat di Badan Pelaksana Badan Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstruksi (BRR) NAD-Nias. Mandat untuk mengelola rehabilitasi dan rekonstruksi wilayah dan kehidupan masyarakat Provinsi Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam dan Kepulauan Nias Sumatera Utara hanya diberikan selama empat tahun: 16 April 2005 hingga 16 April 2009.  Sehingga, saya harus mampu mendesain exit strategy: mau kemana setelah BRR NAD-Nias tutup buku?

Exit strategy yang saya bayangkan adalah sebagai berikut:

1)   Melanjutkan studi S2 di luar negeri dengan beasiswa

2)   Bekerja dengan BRR NAD-Nias hingga berakhirnya mandat untuk memenuhi persyaratan mid-career professional. Komitmen ini bahkan memungkinkan saya untuk memenuhi aspek lain dari persyaratan beasiswa seperti: minimal masa kerja dua tahun di tempat terakhir bekerja serta linearitas latar belakang pendidikan S1, bidang kerja dan program studi master yang akan diambil.

3)   Mengakrabkan diri dengan Bahasa Inggris lisan dan tulisan, sehingga akan sangat bermanfaat untuk meningkatkan skor TOEFL, thus, mempermudah mencari beasiswa

4)   Bergabung dengan milis beasiswa@yahoogroups.com untuk mengumpulkan informasi mengenai peluang beasiswa

5)   Mengalokasikan waktu untuk melakukan community service. Saya memilih untuk terlibat aktif di Bina Antarbudaya Chapter Banda Aceh dalam proses seleksi maupun sebagai juri dalam seleksi Year Program 2008-2012 sebagai bentuk comunity service. Secara prinsip, saya memiliki kedekatan dengan Bina Antarbudaya – The Indonesian Foundation for Intercultural Learning karena merupakan returnee program AFS ke Swiss pada 2001 lalu.

Akhir 2007, saya mulai melakukan “shopping” terhadap beasiswa-beasiswa yang ditawarkan bahkan memberanikan diri untuk melamar meskipun saya sama sekali tidak berpengalaman dalam menulis essai (Personal Statement, Study Research Objective, Statement of Purpose dan sebagainya). Bagi saya, essai-essai tersebut merupakan “living document” yang terus menerus saya perbaharui, saya kembangkan, dan tulis ulang sehingga mampu “membunyikan” kualitas saya sebagai pelamar. Saya mengakui bahwa Statement of Purpose yang saya kirim untuk aplikasi beasiswa NOHA Mundus – Joint Master’s Degree Program in International Humanitarian Action [http://www.nohanet.org] (essai pertama yang saya tulis, red.) buruk sekali. Sehingga, bisa diprediksi bahwa jawaban yang saya terima adalah DITOLAK.

Namun saya tidak patah arang, saya terus melanjutkan upaya melamar beasiswa (beberapa tidak lagi saya simpan aplikasinya dan email penolakan, sehingga saya tidak terlalu precise dengan kronologinya): British Chevening, Ford Foundation, StuNed 2008, MA in International Relations offered jointly by Jacobs University Bremen and the University of Bremen [http://www.ir-bremen.de/international-relations], serta Asian Peacebuilders Scholarship (Dual Campus Master of Arts in Peace Building) dari UPEACE [http://upeace.org/academic/spec_masters/alp.cfm]

Catatan menarik dari aplikasi-aplikasi ini adalah saya tidak mendapatkan jawaban apapun dari British Chevening. Untuk Ford Foundation, saya hanya mendapatkan informasi dari milis terkait daftar kandidat yang dipanggil wawancara; nama saya tidak tertera disana. Saya melamar StuNed saat putaran aplikasi  untuk pelamar dari luar Jawa, namun ditolak dan disarankan untuk mengikuti putaran aplikasi umum karena mereka tidak menerima sertifikat TOEFL prediction. Well, saya menerima penolakan StuNed namun memutuskan untuk tidak mengikuti saran mereka, better find other scholarship providers who accepts your TOEFL prediction’ score.

Kemudian, saya disarankan untuk melamar beasiswa Fulbright Tsunami Relief Initiative oleh beberapa teman. I did dan merasa beruntung karena saya bahkan tidak kesulitan untuk memenuhi persyaratan seperti IPK minimal; I had encountered this issue since I decided to pursue my undergraduate so no headache at all! [Silahkan baca http://mirisa.wordpress.com/2009/03/07/the-power-of-planning/] Saya melamar sebelum deadline 31 Mei 2008. Sebelumnya, saya benar-benar mengalokasikan waktu untuk mempersiapkan lamaran dan semua dokumen pendukung.

Then, saya terharu karena tidak menyangka bahwa saya akan mendapatkan beasiswa Fulbright di kali pertama melamar. Saya berangkat ke USA pada 31 Mei 2009 untuk memulai pre-academic training selama 9 minggu di Spring International Language Center at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. Pada Fall 2009 saya memulai semester pertama di program Master of Arts in Political Science, J. William Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville.

When I finally got my MA degree in Fall 2011, I told my self that indeed, “A goal is a dream with deadline”. Melihat kembali perjalanan hidup saya setelah menyelesaikan kuliah S1 dan mulai memasuki dunia kerja profesional, saya merasa tidak sedikit pun rugi karena telah memberikan tenggat waktu yang ketat bagi pencapaian-pencapaian pribadi serta sangat keras menegakkan disiplin untuk diri sendiri; those are necessary to reach what I aim to achieve in my life. Bermimpi akan banyak hal, serta berusaha sekuat tenaga untuk mewujudkan mimpi-mimpi tersebut menjadi kenyataan, harus dibarengi dengan tenggat waktu, thus the whole universe will conspire to help us.

END NOTES

Saya menemukan bahwa dokumen berikut sangat membantu proses finalisasi Study Research Objective dan Personal Statement yang saya lampirkan untuk melamar beasiswa Fulbright Tsunami Relief Initiative How to Write a Successful Statement of Purpose for Graduate Schools

 

Civic Education: Kontribusinya terhadap Transparansi, Akuntabilitas, dan Voice of Citizen

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Note: catatan ini merupakan refleksi terhadap pelatihan Civic Education for Future Indonesian Leaders (CEFIL) XVII yang saya ikuti pada April 2006. Saat menuliskan refleksi ini, saya sedang bekerja untuk BRR NAD-Nias.

Saya dan BRR NAD-Nias

Menyusul berakhirnya fase tanggap darurat, pemerintah lantas menugasi BAPPENAS untuk mengkoordinasi penyusunan rencana rehabilitasi dan rekonstruksi NAD dan Nias. Beberapa lembaga kerjasama internasional turut serta dalam proses penyusunan rencana induk. Selain mengulas dengan detail kebutuhan pembangunan kembali kawasan yang dilanda bencana, dokumen ini menegaskan pentingnya pembentukan sebuah lembaga yang bertugas untuk mengoordinasi dan melaksanakan kegiatan rehabilitasi dan rekonstruksi di Aceh dan Nias.

Pada 15 April 2005, Presiden RI menetapkan Rencana Induk Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstruksi Wilayah dan Kehidupan Masyarakat Provinsi Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam dan Kepulauan Nias Provinsi Sumatera Utara melalui Keputusan Presiden Nomor 30 Tahun 2005.  Pada keesokan harinya, 16 April 2005, presiden menetapkan pembentukan Badan Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstruksi Wilayah dan Kehidupan Masyarakat Provinsi NAD-Nias melalui Peraturan Pemerintah Pengganti Undang-Undang (Perpu) Nomor 2 Tahun 2005, yang kemudian diundangkan menjadi Undang-Undang Nomor 10 Tahun 2005.

Sejak 9 Juni 2006, saya bekerja di BRR NAD-Nias. Saat menuliskan testimoni ini, saya merupakan senior staf di Pusat Hubungan Mitra Kerja Utama yang berada di bawah Kedeputian bidang Operasi. Rehabilitasi dan rekonstruksi NAD dan Nias pasca bencana adalah hal yang kompleks, terkait dengan kerusakan sepanjang 800 km daerah pesisir (jarak yang sama antara Jakarta dan Surabaya) dan terkait dengan besarnya biaya yang dikelola untuk tujuan ini; Rp 24 triliun dari negara donor yang sudah teralokasi dalam program rehabilitasi dan rekonstruksi, RP 21 triliun yang berasal dari moratorium hutang RI; dan kebutuhan untuk membangun Aceh dan Nias “lebih baik” yakni sebesar Rp 15 triliun yang masih harus dikonfirmasi ulang sumber pembiayaannya.

Sebagai karyawan BRR NAD-Nias, saya ikut menandatangani “Pakta Integritas” sedari awal bekerja, yang merupakan pernyataan kesanggupan untuk tidak terlibat dalam praktek dan upaya KKN serta untuk menjunjung tinggi aspek transparansi, akuntabilitas dan tata kelola pemerintahan yang baik (good governance).

Kontribusi CEFIL terhadap Transparansi, Akuntabilitas dan Voice of Citizen

Bekerja di sebuah lembaga yang memiliki mandat dan tanggung jawab luar biasa, bukanlah hal mudah. Hingga menjelang tahun ketiga pasca tsunami, BRR dan pelaksana rehabilitasi dan rekonstruksi baru berhasil membangun 102.063 rumah dari total kebutuhan sebanyak 120.000 unit rumah. Sehingga, bisa dipastikan, bahwa ada aspek-aspek tertentu dari ekspektasi masyarakat yang belum bisa terpenuhi.

Saya pribadi berusaha menyumbangkan segala kemampuan terbaik untuk mendukung kebijakan, performance dan kemampuan BRR NAD-Nias untuk melaksanakan mandat sebagaimana yang tertuang dalam Rencana Induk.

Saya melihat CEFIL sebagai sebentuk “moral imperative” yang berbicara dan mendiskusikan tentang do’s and donts’ warga negara serta hak dan kewajiban yang harus secara seimbang dikedepankan, sehingga prakteknya tidak men”cederai” hak dan kewajiban orang lain. Dalam lingkup yang personal, saya senantiasa mengedepankan kesetaraan gender dan menjadi gender sensitive dalam melaksanakan pekerjaan, namun tentu saja indikator untuk hal ini agak absurd, karena bidang pekerjaan saya di BRR NAD-Nias tidak bersinggungan dengan program atau proyek langsung. Secara institusi, sikap personal ini sejalan dengan Kebijakan dan Strategi BRR untuk Mengedepankan Kesetaraan Gender dalam Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstruksi di NAD dan Nias yang diterbitkan pada September 2006 lalu.

Di sisi lain, saya mempraktekkan mekanisme “input berupa tuntutan dan dukungan yang diberikan kepada sistem (dalam aspek ini, sistem BRR) untuk dikonversikan menjadi kebijakan dan peraturan”. Secara rutin, TUPOKSI pekerjaan saya untuk “memastikan komunikasi, informasi hubungan dan komitmen mitra kerja utama, baik nasional dan internasional yang berkepentingan dalam proyek infrastruktur terbina dengan baik dan memastikan proyek yang dikerjakan dapat terlaksana dengan baik dan tepat waktu” mengejawantah dalam memberikan pelaporan yang transparan kepada Kepala Hubungan Mitra Kerja Utama dan Deputi/Kepala Operasi BRR NAD-Nias. Hal ini menjadi penting dalam perumusan kebijakan oleh Deputi/Kepala Operasi maupun oleh Kepala Pusat Hubungan Mitra Kerja Utama. Transparansi juga saya kedepankan dalam berhubungan dengan masyarakat korban tsunami; secara terbuka menerima kritik, mendengarkan keluhan, menyampaikan informasi yang benar, menegakkan SOP dan aturan yang berlaku.

Sekali lagi, saya senantiasa mendorong praktek-praktek yang menjunjung tinggi integritas dalam pelaksanaan pekerjaan, termasuk di dalamnya aspek akuntabilitas. Akuntabilitas yang saya praktekkan dibatasi oleh kewenangan yang didelegasikan kepada saya dalam kapasitas sebagai staf senior. Saya mempertanggungjawabkan semua detail kegiatan yang dibiayai oleh APBN, misalnya terkait pembiayaan untuk perjalanan dinas, dalam laporan yang bisa diterima, benar dan tanpa mark-up. Menurut saya, ini adalah aspek kecil dari akuntabilitas dalam konteks personal.

Sementara dalam hal menyuarakan aspirasi masyarakat, secara personal, saya selalu melaporkan hal–hal yang menjadi temuan di lapangan, atau dilaporkan oleh masyarakat, untuk ditindaklanjuti bersama. Sebuah contoh kongkrit adalah ketika seorang warga melaporkan “status tidak layak” atas rumah bantuan yang didapatkannya; saya dan tim menindaklanjuti dengan melakukan kunjungan lapangan, melakukan pengecekan terhadap komitmen pemberi bantuan, melihat aturan yang berlaku dan menelusuri “apa yang pernah disepakati” antara pemberi dan penerima bantuan, dan kemudian memberi solusi yang memenangkan kedua belah pihak (win – win solution).

Letter from UoA Japan Tsunami Relief Fundraising

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Fayetteville, March 30, 2011

Dear Sir/Madam,

I would like to sincerely express my gratitude for helping us with the “Japan Earthquake and Pacific Tsunami” fundraising today by purchasing the Lontar Cake or Kue Lontar in Bahasa Indonesia. This cake is from the eastern part of Indonesia (Papua Barat, West Papua or Irian Jaya). It obtained the name “Lontar” from the plate it used, a concave dish with fish paintings at the bottom.

The recent earthquake and tsunami that devastated Japan has consequently brought all of the memories’ of my own loses back. I am from the Province of Aceh, Indonesia, which was devastated by an 8.9 earthquake at the Richter scale, and triggered a tsunami. Personally, I missed four family members; by missing I mean that we never found the bodies of my father, older sister, and my two youngest brothers. It is because of this that our lives will never be the same. Despite all of the difficulties that my family and I endured following the 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake, it was also a defining moment for me as well. I was touched by the flow of humanitarian aids pouring into my region. Having experienced working for two-and-half years for the Indonesian government agency for post-tsunami rehabilitation and reconstruction, and later the UNDP. These experiences have reshaped my view toward international relations, and also beckoned the call for humanity to stand for others in the face of disaster. It is through aid and socio-politics, that a way to move forward, and heal our trauma, and talk about our experiences immerges.

I have been in their position, and I know that if you have hope, nothing could stop you from moving forward. This is also the message that I wish to convey to all the survivors of Japanese earthquake and tsunami. “I deeply understood your loses but you are not alone. Together, we could move forward and heal this trauma.” And you, along with this pie that you are having in your hand right now, is a part of this humanitarian journey as well; my journey and the Japanese people’s journey.

As you take this pie home, I would share with you the recipe so you could enjoy this pie at any other time in the future.

Lontar Cake/Kue Lontar
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Ingredients:
1 pie crust
8 egg yolks
1 can sweetened condensed milk
1 can hot water (use the sweetened condensed milk can for measurement)
1 teaspoon vanilla extract

1. Beat egg yolks in a medium bowl with an electric mixer at 4-5 speed scale (out of 10) until the color is changed to a pale yellow.
2. Gradually begin adding the sweetened condensed milk and hot water, keep beating them
3. Add the vanilla extract and keep beating until the vanilla extract mix evenly
4. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees
5. Put the mix on the top of pie crust
6. Bake it at 320 degrees for 45 minutes or until cooked (I usually press the toothpick into the cake, if no mix stick to it, then it is cooked)

Again, I would like to thank you very much for being a part of this humanitarian journey! A journey that we hope will aid in healing the Japanese people’s trauma and loses.
Warmest regard,

Mirisa Hasfaria
International Cultural Team (ICT) member from Indonesia

Pst: If you want to know more about my story, please feel free to check me out at http://humanlibrary.uark.edu/catalog.asp under the title “2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake and My ‘Humanitarian’ Journey”

Background Note – This letter accompanied Lontar Cake that people purchase at the event of University of Arkansas Japan Tsunami Relief Fundraising took place on March 30, 2011. I decided to accompany each plate of the cake with a letter that contained the recipe, so people could make the cake later by themselves. It is also important to note that my Indonesian fellow that was also ICT Member, Petra Kristi Mulyani, had provided me with significant favor; she agreed to share the production costs, we stayed until mid-night to make the pie (5 of them), and we shared some laughs during the baking. I would like to thank Indria Pratiwi also for allowing me to use her Kue Lontar’ picture in this post. She was the person who introduced me to the cake and if you want to know her own version of the recipe, please visit the following link: http://www.facebook.com/pages/Dapuria-Toko-Kue-Lontar-di-Jogja/232228973458915?id=232228973458915&sk=notes

My Mutual Understanding Journey at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville

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I would always remember that day, June 16, 2006 when I was having my interview for Fulbright scholarship. I was sitting in front of a panel of three comprising senior American and Indonesian scholars assessing my eligibility to be granted the scholarship. At the time I got the admission letter from the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville, I knew that soon I would be pursuing my MA in Political Science at the home of the greatest person in history, late Senator James William Fulbright. Understanding fully about Fulbright objectives of mutual understanding, I was exposed to such moral imperative to be the agent for delivering the message.

I have been joining International Culture Team (ICT) since Fall 2010 Semester. At first, I valued ICT as the venue that gave me many opportunities to engage in the process of creating mutual understanding. Later, I started to realize that ICT filled in the emptiness I always have. It is not easy being away from home. Even though my presence here is for a reason; a higher degree of education that would expose me to a brighter future, but these two years away from home is not very pleasant. I tried to make friends with as many people I could. Often times, I was willing to help my classmate with their assignments. It turned out that a friendship they value lasted as long as they were benefited from it. Once the semester was over, no such friendship prevailed. I realized that my true friends actually are the international students.

I started to value my involvement with ICT more. It is always ICT members who greeted me and gave me hugs when we met anywhere in campus. It is always ICT members who were willing to listen about what was going on with me. Without having to tell them the complete story, they were willing to give their insights and encouragements. It is being among ICT members that I felt I am home and accepted.

In my own way to pay back what I valued as my home and my family, I always try to join as many ICT events as I could. During 2010/2011 academic years, I joined more than 30 ICT events ranging from presentation for some schools to fundraising activities. Among some schools that I had visited for presenting Indonesia are Green Forest Middle School, Holcomb Elementary School, West Fork Elementary School and Holt Middle School as well as Root Elementary School and Leverett Elementary School that I visited during 2009/2010 academic years. I helped the Razorback Relief Operation for preparing 1.4 million meals for Haitian after I got email from ICT Coordinator, Ms. Cynthia Smith, encouraged ICT members to help the fundraising event. I also presented ICT for UoA Japan Tsunami Relief fundraising and was able to raise more than 70 dollars alone.

In addition to this, I also tried to bring diversity into UoA community by volunteering my self to become human book for Living Library Event since Spring 2010 Semester. Starting from having no times reserved for my book at the beginning, moving to have four checked-out times in Fall 2010 Semester and other four in Spring 2011 Semester, satisfied my personal goals of bringing the diversity at minor scale to the UoA community. I personally touched that my book titled “My Mutual Understanding Journey: from AFSer to a Fubright Scholar” inspired a UoA undergraduate student to study abroad hoping to involve in cross-cultural understanding’ experience. While my other book, “2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake-Tsunami and My Humanitarian Journey” had inspired one of my readers to sponsor a child in Africa after knowing that I did sponsor a child in the past.

I was selected as ICT Core Team for two semesters consecutively. The team was responsible to help ICT with the events throughout the year such as the monthly meeting, immersion, school’s international celebration and others. In fulfilling my duty, I always tried to give insight about how we designed and organized each ICT monthly meeting and what task would be assigned to each core member. During Fall 2010 Semester, I always cooked for the ICT monthly meeting but was not able to do the same for Spring 2011 Semester because the monthly meeting always conflicted with my class schedule. I chose this task because I knew that ICT always had more eaters than cookers. ICT meeting is famous for its free food but not so many members are willing to share their food themselves.

I have learned from my ICT presentation experiences that I have to be always creative to bring joy into the classroom. I used various presentation aides to engage my audience into my presentations. My favorite one -apparently kids’ favorite too- is Indonesian Batik Map where I could show them Indonesian islands that are scattered along the equator. I taught them my traditional dance, Tarek Pukat, that involved a lot of patience since the kids themselves couldn’t tolerate mistake their friends made (please see the att. video). I let them trying my national custom, Kebaya and Sarung. I challenged my self to bring different face of Indonesian culture to my audiences, such as cooking food from the Eastern part of Indonesia. Above all, I always gave my personal touch to what I did. For example, whenever I made the pie for Japanese earthquake fundraising, I enclosed my personal thank you note and shared the recipe with the buyers. Or, whenever I cooked the food for the kids or ICT members, I made them from scratch. By doing this, I set my own high standard of gaining respect toward mutual understanding journey that I am currently taking.

In sum, no matter how small my contribution toward ICT’s bigger objectives of bringing diversity to the UoA community are, I am glad that I am an active participant of this on-going effort. My two years experiences with ICT made me understood that I did build the language of love and mutual understanding through the children, the future of today’s life, whom we borrow the Earth from.

Background Note – This was the essay I wrote as part of application for 2011 Outstanding ICT Member Scholarship. In fact, I was awarded with ICT Spirit Award, that was given to recognize the member of ICT who embodies the spirit of ICT. The Outstanding ICT Member Scholarship was awarded to my Indonesian fellow: Petra Kristi Mulyani. In addition to this, Indonesia won Country of The Year Award for two consecutive years, in 2010 and 2011 respectively.

Letter to Cynthia Smith

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Nakhonpathom, Thailand, November 9, 2012[1]

Dear Cynthia [2],
I hope you and your family is doing all right. I am sorry that I never write you any emails or letters after I returned to Indonesia. However, I want to rectify this and I would love to keep in touch with you and the International Culture Team (ICT). I have been missing all of those routines I used to do with ICT and around UoA campus. In the following, I would like to share some ideas that I thought would be beneficial to ICT.

1) Different ways of celebrating the International Women’s Day

In the past, ICT had been celebrating the day with fashion show of women’ customs around the world, dancing, singing, poetry reading, video showing, etc. I thought it would be great if once ICT coordinated donating hair activities for cancer survivors, either through Pantene Beautiful Lengths’ Program or Locks of Love (http://www.locksoflove.org/). I donated my hair once for Pantene Beautiful Lengths. I contacted them to get the details, and below you will find their response to my inquiry:

You can learn all about the program, including hair requirements, at http://www.beautifullengths.com/en_US/makethecut.jsp in the USA. After your hair is cut, please place the dry ponytail, kept intact with a plastic band, in a tightly sealed zipper lock bag. Then, place the bag in a padded or plastic envelope and send to the following address:

Pantene Beautiful Lengths
Attn: 192-123 20770
Westwood Dr.
Strongsville, OH 44149

Be sure to include your complete name and mailing address, as thank you notes are sent after donations are received. Thanks in advance for your generous donation!

Jay
Pantene Team

One way of doing the hair donation could be by contacting the nearest P&G, so they could send their hair stylists to help with cutting the hair. I remembered that they coordinated Pantene Beautiful Lengths’ Hair Donation event in Rogers, AR, on September 2009. In addition to this, ICT could help disseminating the information to the students about the event that is going to take place on March 8, so we could get many people lined up for the event. Also, ICT could specifically invite the international students to become part of the event. I know that long hair has special meanings for women in different cultures. To give the event the nuances of solidarity, ICT could ask each international student to tell their story what long hair means in their culture and why now they decided to take part in the event. ICT could also take their before and after picture, and later displayed this on ICT website, along with the stories about their long hairs.

2) Arranging Thanksgiving with American Families for American Students attending CAPS

I was having my individual and group counseling sessions with Counseling and Psychological Services (CAPS) during Fall 2010 Semester. Among those UoA students attending the group session were those suffering from their parents’ divorce and had difficulties to continue a good relationship with either their Moms or Dads after that. I remembered one of the girls broke into tears when she said that she got no place to go for celebrating Thanksgiving. On the other side, I was telling everybody that I would go to Elkins, AR, to celebrate the day with my BF’s family. I felt sorry for her that she didn’t have any places to go and left behind while at the same time, ICT helped the international students to be able to celebrate the event with American families. I told my self, if somehow I could tell ICT about this, maybe later ICT could be able to include them into the list of the students that ICT would help to find families to celebrate Thanksgiving with. You could contact CeCe Hilliard, LCSW, (email: hilliar@uark.edu, campus phone: 479 575 5276) who is working with one of therapy groups at CAPS, to go further, if you interested in helping them.

3) The Princess Project

I was once having dinner with my BF that time at Noodles Italian Kitchen restaurant at the same time some high school students having their prom dinner. Another time in my life, I was sitting in CAPS waiting room for my individual session and reading an interesting article from a teenage magazine. It mentioned about the Princess Project. What attracted me more was the fact that even though the prom night is part of the most awaited event for high school students, but there are some who cannot afford buying nice dress and accessories to attend the event. I thought that it would be interesting if ICT could coordinate an event where some international students are going to be paired with some high school students who have limitations to do dress shopping for prom. Instead, the international students are going to dress the girls with their cultural attire, helping with the preparations, as well as make up whenever possible. Not only the girls would be benefited from the colorful and beautiful dress from around the world, but the girls, the international students and the high school students, would have chance to bring mutual understanding and to deliver the message of solidarity.

4) Joining Susan G. Komen Race for the Cure at Pinnacle Hills Promenade, Rogers, AR.
Diane L. Cook, the Director of Graduate Student Activities, has been coordinating graduate students to participate in Race for the Cure for some years. I was joining the team for two years consecutively, on 2010 and 2011. The event usually takes place during the last Saturday of the month of April (it was on April 24, 2012 and April 30, 2011). I thought it would be great if ICT members could participate into this event. There is $20 registration fee for each, and maybe ICT could provide subsidy around $15 for each? Diane L. Cook usually takes care about the transportation to and from Pinnacle Hills.

There are all that I could think of to color the ICT activities for now. Please contact me for anything I could do to support the ICT from Indonesia; we’ve been lucky to live in such technology age these days, so I don’t think the distance between Fayetteville, AR and Indonesia would have significant impact in enhancing our mutual understanding. I am sending all my love for you, your family, ISS big family, and all ICT members.

Mirisa Hasfaria

___________
[1] Even though I wrote the exhaustive list quite sometimes ago, but I had the idea to mail you the letter when I was in Thailand, joining the UNESCO Chair International Regional Training Programme, November 1 – 12, 2012.
[2] Cynthia Smith is Assistant Director for Outreach at Office of International Students and Scholars (ISS) at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. “International Culture Team (ICT) is a very special team of international student educators. The team is typically comprised of about 200 graduate and undergraduate students representing over 50 countries. It offers global education to the UoA campus, schools at all grade levels, and businesses and community organizations throughout Northwest Arkansas. On average, ICT members provided cultural lectures and performances for over 7,500 children and adult.”

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